Second Sklon – Genitive

As you already know, there are 6 grammatical cases – skloni in Slovene. Knowing how and when to apply them is primordial.

Before getting to the second sklon, you should already know the First Sklon – Nominative and the Fourth Sklon – Accusative.

If you’ve read my previous posts, you will know by now that Slovene word is masculine, feminine or neutral and it has a singular, dual and plural form. Each form can be used with all the 6 grammatical cases – so, in Slovene, every noun has 18 versions.

Second Sklon – Genitive

The second sklon is also known as rodilnik or genitiv in Slovene and it is the “Genitive” case. The rodilnik sklon is one of the most used form of the nouns along with imenovalnik and tožilnik.

Here’s the table for the Sklon 2, Genitive (I don’t have…)

SKLON 2  (m) STAR_ TELEFON_ (ž) NOVA TORBA (s) VELIKO LETALO
(E) Nimam starega telefona
starega psa
nove torbe velikega letala
vročega morja
(D) Nimam starih telefonov novih torb_ velikih letal_
(M) Nimam starih telefonov novih torb_ velikih letal_
Reminder:  (E) ednina/singular, (D) dvojina/dual, (M) množina/plural and (m) moški/masculine, (ž) ženski/feminine, (s) srednji/neutral.

As you can see, in the Genitive case, a lot of endings are the same. Refer to the colors:

  • the masculine singular is the same as the neutral singular,
  • the masculine dual and plural is the same and
  • the feminine dual and plural forms have the exact same ending as the neutral dual and plural forms.

❤ And here’s an simplified version of the endings, easier to remember :

 SKLON 2 (m) (ž) (s)
(E EGAA -E-E EGA –A
(D IHOV* IH_ IH_
(M IH –OV* IH_ IH_
Reminder: is the famous bracket (c, č, š, ž j) where the o changes into e.

When to use the second sklon

  1. the noun is directly affected by a negation verb
    For example, I don’t have (what? who?) a telephone  Nimam (česa? koga?) telefona2(E)I don’t drink coffee Ne pijem kave2(E).
  2. following specific preposition
    • iz or s/z(from) – to answer the question Od kod ste? (Where are you from?) | i.e. I’m from Canada Sem iz Kanade2 / She is from China Ona je s Kitajske2.
      The prepositions v and na – Fourth Sklon

      When we use the preposition v in the fourth sklon, we use the preposition iz in the second sklon.

      When we use the preposition na for the fourth sklon, we use the preposition s/z. (s is used if the following word starts with C, Č, F, H, K, P, S, Š and T).
    • brez(without), od… do (from… to), blizu* (near), zraven/poleg (next to, beside), nasproti (facing), mimo* (passing by), preko (across), sredi (in the middle), okoli* (around) and izmed (among all).
      * Please note that those are considered as “fake preposition” as they categorized as adverbs.
  3. the double nouns (samostalnikX + samostalnik2)
    The Slovene noun + noun is like two nouns connected with the preposition “of” in English.
    For example, let’s use school of Slovene (šolaX + slovenščina2) with different skloni:

    • Sklon 1: To je šola1 slovenščine/To ni šola1 slovenščine2
    • Sklon 4: Grem v šolo4 slovenščine2 /  Ne grem v šolo4 slovenščine2  / Imam šolo4 slovenščine2 danes.
    • Sklon 2: Nimam šole2 slovenščine2 danes.

      Notice how the first noun is used with the corresponding sklon and how the second noun is always in its second sklon form.

The second sklon is used at other occasions as well, but if you can remember and learn those written here, you’re already doing a great job! I know it’s a lot of information at once, but

Vaja dela mojstra – Practice makes perfect.

If you are up to learn more uses of the second sklon, you can check When to use the Second Sklon – Genitive.


I remember how confused while learning the first, fourth and second sklon. Therefore, if you are currently feeling confused, overwhelmed and/or completely lost – don’t worry, it is absolutely normal and part of the learning (and trust me, it will get better!).

If you have any questions, because you might have: don’t be shy and contact me for help! If you have any other learning tricks, please do share with me – we are all learners!

Knowing the first, fourth and second sklon  (which are the most commonly used ones) – you already know half (50%!) of the 6 Slovene grammatical cases! Woohoo! 😀


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & Numerals, Slovene Nouns & Pronouns, Slovene Verbs, Slovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Don’t give up, let’s learn,
Anna.

Advertisements

7 thoughts on “Second Sklon – Genitive

  1. Hello Ljubljanalady,
    I know the second sklon is a big chunk, the ending table shouldn’t be too difficult. Where it gets more heavy and confusing is usually at the “When to use” part. Take one point at the time, like 1-2-3 for now. (I guess I will divide this post in two) 🙂 Thanks for the feedback! You can always contact me if you have questions!

    Like

  2. I think it’s worth pointing out – maybe you have and I missed it – that Anglo-American systems don’t number the cases in the same order, or indeed number them at all. When I was a sprout, it was nominative, accusative, dative, genitive, in that order…and that was enough for all the languages I had to learn. You are going with the Euro-version: nominative, genitive, dative…you don’t seem to have a page on dajalnik – maybe the locals discovered your plot to reveal their secret weapon and this is where you reached the frontiers of mutual unintelligibility.

    And then accusative in fourth place. Which to me seems to split the point of having a sentence with a subject, verb, and object to opposite ends of the grammar system. Again, the locals seem to remember cases by their numbers, not what they actually do. So this clash of case orders is obviously an easy hole into which to tumble, and imenovalnik followed by rodilnik looks to me like it was either designed by teachers trying to enhance their authority by confusing everyone, or by a tramp with some cider. Anyway I hope the neurological damage is not too severe – you have earned an honourable mention at https://plus.google.com/+SolarpanelSi/posts/B8eQoU1e6xY

    Like

  3. Hey Ljubljanalady,
    I’m a learner myself, so I do not have all answers, although I don’t think that the number of the case was ever meant as a “learning order” – why are they numbered as such? I do not know (yet), it’s the way the Slovenian children learn in school, so maybe the numbers are just as reference. If it helps, I did mentioned in my posts which sklon the reader should already know/ be familiar with before learning another sklon.

    I’m building my posts following the same order as I’ve learnt the skloni: 1. Nominative > 4. Accusative > 2. Genitive > 5. Locative > 6. Instrumental and finally, 3. Dative – therefore, there will be a Dajalnik post eventually! 🙂 And thanks for the mention!

    Like

  4. You’re welcome! Eventually I was required to guess that locative and instrumental always trump dative in a preposition-controlled way, including v/na for the first and z/s for the second, thus in Slovene dative is only for indirect objects to which neither of these apply.

    Thus in English “We stayed in a hotel in Slough”, “He whacked the burglar with a 1970s dot matrix printer” and “I give credit to the inventors”, Slough, printer and inventors are all dative for all the difference it makes. In Slovene Slough is locative, the printer instrumental, and only the inventors are dative.

    But in “I give credit to the inventors of the microscope” neither inventors or microscope seem to be dative, and it’s anybody’s guess why. Nuff said.

    Like

  5. Well, if we translate “I give credit to the inventors of the microscope” >> “Zasluge dajem izumiteljem mikroskopa”.If we analyze it, we would say “Dajem kaj komu?”, therefore “zasluge” is in accusative, the item “izumiteljem mikroskope” is in dative BUT because of the rule noun+noun, mikroskopa is in genitive, so only izumiteljem is declined in dative. So, either you want to say “I give credit to the inventors” or “I give credit to the inventors of the microscope”, in both case only inventors is in dative, even if inventors of the microscope goes together. Hope that clears up a bit for you! 🙂

    Like

Leave a thought

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s