Nouns – Second Feminine Declension, Part 1

As mentioned in a previous post, Slovene feminine nouns are recognized with their ending -a, although, some feminine nouns have different endings. Such as -ev, which are declined with the first feminine declension.  The second feminine declension, known as druga ženska sklanjatev, are for feminine nouns that end with ost, some –en/em/el and some short nouns.

Second feminine declension will be divided into three parts:

Second Female Declension, endings with -ost

Nouns that end with ost, such as kakovost (quality), starost (age), možnost (possibility) are feminine.

If you know the female declension of nouns ending with -a, learning the “first-second” feminine declension ending with -ost should be easy. Pay attention to the text in color.

Here’s the table of Skloni with feminine noun ending with –a:

 “normal” Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 dobra miza dobri mizi dobre mize
 SKLON 2 dobre mize dobrih miz_ dobrih miz_
 SKLON 3 dobri mizi dobrima mizama dobrim mizam
 SKLON 4 dobro mizo dobri mizi dobre mize
 SKLON 5 dobri mizi dobrih mizah dobrih mizah
 SKLON 6 dobro mizo dobrima mizama dobrimi mizami

Here’s the table of Skloni with feminine noun ending with –ost:

2.1 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 dobra kakovost dobri kakovosti dobre kakovosti
 SKLON 2 dobre kakovosti dobrih kakovosti dobrih kakovosti
 SKLON 3 dobri kakovosti dobrima kakovost(i)ma dobrim kakovostim
 SKLON 4 dobro kakovost dobri kakovosti dobre kakovosti
 SKLON 5 dobri kakovosti dobrih kakovostih dobrih kakovostih
 SKLON 6 dobro kakovostjo dobrima kakovost(i)ma dobrimi kakovostmi

❤ A simplified version of the ending:

 “normal” Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -A -I -I -E -E
 SKLON 2 -E -E  -IH –_ -IH –_
 SKLON 3  -I -I  -IMA –AMA -IM -AM
 SKLON 4 -O –O  -I -I -E -E
 SKLON 5 -I – I -IH -AH -IH -AH
 SKLON 6 -O –O -IMA – AMA -IMI – AMI

and

 2.1 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -OST -I –I -E –I
 SKLON 2 -E –I -IH –I -IH –I
 SKLON 3  -I –I -IMA -(I)MA -IM –IM
 SKLON 4 -O –OST -I –I -E –I
 SKLON 5 -I – I -IH –IH -IH –IH
 SKLON 6 -O –JO -IMA – (I)MA -IMI – MI

If we compare the two table, you will notice that there is basically a lot of –I with -ost nouns, except:

  • the singular form in fourth case remains the same as its original form,
  • the singular form in sixth case, instead of being just –O, it becomes –JO,
  • the dual form in third and sixth case, instead of –AMA, it becomes –(I)MA

    Dual form in third and sixth case of this group of feminine nouns can be –IMA or –MA, both endings are accepted. Although, it is good to know that on Amebis Besana (a great search engine for Slovene words) will only show the form -MA.
  • the plural form in sixth case is only –MI instead of –IMI.

The declension of adjectives doesn’t change and it remains the same as in “normal”.


Other Nouns – “Exceptions”

Beside nouns ending with –ost, there are also other nouns that fall into the 2.1. Feminine declension group. Such as:

jesen (autumn), kokoš (chicken), miš (mouse), nit (thread), obrv (eyebrow), pamet (intelligence), perut(wing), polnoč (midnight), pomlad (spring), smrt (death) zavest (consciousness), žival (animal)…


Due to exceptions, second Feminine declension can be quite challenging, but there’s no need to panic. I know some Slovenians who “have the grammar in the little finger” (Understanding Slovenian Idioms #002) that also find it difficult. If you have any comments, questions about the second feminine declension, just drop me a message or a comment!

Update – here is my Cheat sheet “Table of First and Second Feminine Declension“. More can be found under Learning Materials.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

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