Same as in English, conjunctions – known as vezniki, are used in Slovene to connect clauses or sentences in a way that they would make senses together. These words do not change form, and are not affected by gender, numbers or cases.
Conjunctions in Slovene are divided into two groups : priredni (coordinating) and podredni (subordinating). Depending on the context, they can be put at the beginning or in the middle.
Coordinating – Priredni Vezniki
Coordinating conjunctions are used to connect two clauses that are grammatically equal, like two nouns, two verbs or two independent clauses…
- In (and) , ter (then)
Moram kupiti kruh in mleko ter sir – I have to buy bread and milk then cheese.
- Samo / le (only)
Vsi jejo torto, samo Tina ne – All eat cake, only Tina doesn’t.
- Ampak / toda / vendar (but, however)
Miha nima brata, ampak ima sestro – Miha doesn’t have a brother but has a sister.
- Kot (like)
Zame si kot sestra – You are like a sister to me.
- Ali (or)
Gremo na desno ali na levo – We go right or left?
- Torej / zato (therefore)
Mira je noseča, torej ne pije alkohola – Mira is pregnant, therefore she doesn’t drink alcohol.
Subordinating – Podredni Vezniki
Subordinating conjunctions are used to connect a subordinating clause – a clause that cannot stand alone.
- Ko (when/as)
Jedli bodo, ko bodo lačni – They will eat when they will be hungry.
- Ker (because)
Rada jem temno čokolado, ker je grenka – I like to eat dark chocolate because it’s bitter.
- Kar (since)Kako dolgo je bilo, kar si šel v šolo – How long has it been since you went to school?
- Da (that)
Recimo, da imaš prav – Let’s say that you are right.
- Če (if, in case)
Če imaš preveč časa, lahko študiraš slovenščino – If you have too much time, you can study Slovene.
- Čeprav (Although, though)
Prišel je, čeprav pozno – He came, although late.
Sometimes, a combination of conjunctions are treated as a whole – without a comma between them.
- Namesto da (instead of)
Namesto da bi ostal zunaj, lahko prideš noter – Instead of staying outside, you can come inside.
- Zato ker (because)
Zato ker nisem pričakovala, sem bila res presenečna – Because I was not expecting, I got really surprised.
- Kljub temu / kljub temu da (despite that / despite the fact that)
Kljub temu da je bilo veliko snega, sem šla v službo – Despite the fact there was a lot of snow, I went to work.
- Medtem ko (while)
Medtem ko otroci spijo, kuham kosilo – While the children are sleeping, I’m cooking lunch.
- Potem ko (after)
Potem ko je Tilen naredil domače naloge, je šel domov – After Tilen did his homework, he went home.
It might seems a lot a first, but there are actually more… 😛 Do not panic, just take it one at the time. Conjunctions are actually kind of fun to use as it helps connecting clauses together. It is actually a very good practice for your Slovene! If you have any questions, or others conjunctions that you would like me to add, just let me know!
Let’s learn Slovene,