Learning Slovene can be difficult, but using some “pre-made” phrases to express yourself can make it easier. First, know how to use the affirmation form (Part 1), then you will be able to use, according to what you want to express, in negation form, as well as in Past and Future tense.
In the affirmation form, there are two important things:
- the sklon used for the following noun and
- the personal pronoun, in third (Z3) and fourth (Z4) sklon.
In negation form, you need to remember that the personal pronoun changes from fourth (Z4) to second (Z2) sklon – which is the sklon specific for negation. But there are also some exceptions, such as a sklon specific preposition or the verb biti (to be) being used. If the personal pronoun used is in third (Z3) sklon, then it remains unchanged.
To conjugate in the past and future tense, the verb biti (to be) is used as follow:
- Past tense – biti (to be, in present) + participle
- Future tense – biti (to be, in future) + participle
As you have already noticed, “pre-made” phrases in negation form, past and future tense have a lot of elements: personal pronouns, verb biti, participle and so on. The syntax can become quite confusing. This is where the Order of Word plays an important role.
|1st priority||2nd priority||3rd priority|
|naj, sem, bi||se/si > Z3 > Z4/2||je, bom|
- sem represents the verb biti in the present and past tense, for all pronouns except the singular third person (je) and
- bom represents the verb biti in the future tense, for all pronouns.
The negation of biti (nisem, ne bom…) is not part of the priority.
Všeč mi3 je + […]1 becomes Ni mi všeč + […]1 – I don’t like […]
- Všeč mi3 je skuta1 becomes Skuta1 mi3 ni všeč (I don’t like cottage cheese).
- Všeč so mi3 kače1 becomes Kače1 mi3 niso všeč (I don’t like snakes).
- Všeč mi3 je koncert1 becomes Všeč mi3 je bil koncert (I liked the concert).
- Všeč jim3 je kitajska hrana1 becomes Všeč jim3 bo kitajska hrana1 (They will like Chinese food).
Prijetno mi3 je + […] – It pleases me […]
- Prijetno mi3 je, ker ste prinesli darilo becomes Ni mi3 prijetno, ker niste prinesli darila (It doesn’t please me, because you didn’t bring a gift).
- Prjetno mi3 je, ko pridete na obisk becomes Prijetno mi3 je bilo, ko ste prišli na obisk (It pleased me, that you came visit).
Ni mi3 treba + [infinitive verb] – I don’t need to [infinitive verb]
- Moram iti v trgovino becomes Ni mi3 treba iti v trgovino (I don’t need to go to the store).
- Morala sem skuhati kosilo becomes Ni mi3 bilo treba kuhati kosila (I didn’t need to cook lunch).
- Morala bi najti stanovanje becomes Ne bi mi3 bilo treba najti stanovanja (I wouldn’t have to find an apartment).
Zdi se mi3 + […] – It seems to me […]
- Zdi se mi3, da imaš danes čas becomes Ne zdi se mi3, da imaš danes čas (It doesn’t seem to me that you have time today).
- Zdi se mi3 prav becomes Ni se mi3 zdelo prav (It didn’t seem right to me).
Peče me4 + […]1 – It burns me […]
- Pečejo me4 usta1, ko jem feferone becomes Usta me ne pečejo, ko jem feferone (My mouth doesn’t burn when I eat tabasco pepper).
- Peče jo4 rana – Rana je2 ne peče več (Her wound doesn’t burn her anymore).
Moti me4 + […]1 – It bothers me […]
- Moti me4 vremenska napoved1 becomes Vremenska napoved1 me2 ne moti (The weather forecast doesn’t bother me).
- Vse1 me4 moti becomes Nič1 me4 ne moti (Nothing bothers me).
- Moti ga4, ker si pozen becomes Ne moti ga2, ker si pozen (It doesn’t bother him because you are late).
- Moti nas4, ko nič ne poveš becomes Motilo nas2 je, ko nisi nič povedel (It bothered us when you didn’t tell anything).
Privlači me4 + […]1 – It attracts me […]
- Privlači me4 smešna osebnost1 becomes Smešna osebnost me2 ne privlači (Funny personality doesn’t attract me).
- Privlači te4 drugi1 becomes Privlačil te je drugi1 (You were attracted to others).
- Privlači jo2 moški1, ki ni njen mož becomes Moški1, ki ni njen mož, je2 ne privlači (Man that is not her husband doesn’t attract her).
- Vseeno mi3 je + […] – I don’t care […]
Vseeno mi3 je za spol, samo da bo zdrav (I don’t care about the gender, just that it will be healthy).
- Nerodno mi3 je + […] – I feel awkward […]
Nerodno mi3 je, ko govorimo o denarju – I feel awkward, when talking about money.
- Ni mi3 lahko + […] – It is not easy for me
Ni mi3 lahko, ker nisem doma (It is not easy for me, because I am not home).
- Ne da se mi3 + [infinitive verb] – I don’t feel like […]
Ne da se mi3 iti na sprehod (I don’t feel like going for a walk).
- Hudo mi3 je + […] – I feel bad […]
Hudo mi3 je, ko nimam časa skuhati kosila (I feel bad when I don’t have time to cook lunch).
Pre-made phrases are so versatile to use, and they can be applied to different situations: affirmation, negation, present tense, past tense, future tense, to myself, to him, to us and so on. They are simple, but can become quite complex as you add more “elements” and details to it – but Vaja dela mojstra (Practice makes perfect)! If you have any comments or questions, don’t hesitate and let me know!
Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & Numerals, Slovene Nouns & Pronouns, Slovene Verbs, Slovene Adjectives, Slovene Syntax, Slovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.