Nouns – Neuter Exceptions

Neuter Slovene nouns end with “-e” or “-o” and follow the six grammatical cases known as skloni. Neuter exceptions have the same endings, but with some extra “add-ups”, which we will cover now.

Ending with -O

Most nouns ending in “-o” are neuter ( if it’s not masculine exceptions). You will probably recognize some of them.

When declined, “-es” is added.

  • kolo (bicycle) → Grem z kolesom6E  (I go with bicycle).
  • drevo (tree) → Imamo veliko dreves2M (We have lots of trees).
  • telo (body), slovo (farewell)
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 telo telesi telesa
Sklon 2 telesa teles teles
Sklon 3 telesu telesoma telesom
Sklon 4 telo telesi telesa
Sklon 5 telesu telesih telesih
Sklon 6 telesom telesoma telesi

When declined,  it takes a different forms and “-es” is added.

  • oko (eye) → Tim je imel poškodbe očesa4M (Tim had eyes injuries).
  • uho (ear) → esa1Mme bolijo (My ears hurt me).
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 uho esi esa
Sklon 2 esa es es
Sklon 3 esu esoma esom
Sklon 4 uho esi esa
Sklon 5 esu esih esih
Sklon 6 esom esoma esi

Ending with -E

Another ending for neuter is “-e” (again, if it’s not a masculine exceptions).

When declined, “-t” is added, usually for youths.

  • tele (calf, baby cow) → Letos imamo tri teleta4M (This year we have three calves).
  • dekle (little girl) →  V skupini so tri dekleta1M (In the group are three little girls).
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 dekle dekleti dekleta
Sklon 2 dekleta deklet deklet
Sklon 3 dekletu dekletoma dekletom
Sklon 4 dekle
dekleta
dekleti dekleta
Sklon 5 dekletu dekletih dekletih
Sklon 6 dekletom dekletoma dekleti

When the ending, “-n” is added.

  • ime (name) → Pes je brez imena2E (The dog is without a name).
  • vreme (weather) → Danes nimamo lepega vremena2E (Today we don’t have good weather).
  • pleme (tribe), breme (load), ramaž / rames (shoulder)
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 ime imeni imena
Sklon 2 imena imen imen
Sklon 3 imenu imenoma imenom
Sklon 4 ime imeni imena
Sklon 5 imenu imenih imenih
Sklon 6 imenom imenoma imeni

If compared with feminine and masculine exceptions, neuters are probably less complicated. Although, as a foreigner, learning “exceptions” can sometimes be difficult. From my point of view, the importance is not to always remember the exceptions, but to know that they exist. If you have any questions, let me know!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

What brings luck to Slovenians?

Depending on the culture, there are many beliefs that certain things bring luck, while other bring bad luck – it is the same for Slovenians.

Holding a button when meeting the dimnikar brings luck

Dimnikar (chimney sweeper) is a very important profession in Slovenia, because many house burn logs as a main source of heat. Therefore, it is important that the chimney is cleaned and inspected.

I’ve been told that if I hold a button when the chimney sweeper comes, then something good will happen on the same day! Unfortunately, I always forget to wear something with a button when it’s time for inspection… (lol).

Seeing a spider in the house brings luck

Personally, I do not like  pajki (spiders) at all, especially inside the house. I just have this pressing urge to smack them right away. Until one day, as I was about to get rid of one, my Slovenian mother-in-law told me that spiders found in the house were believed to bring luck for a short period of time.

All I can say is… the spider got really lucky on that day.

Hearing the cuckoo brings money

One year while on a walk with my Slovenian mother-in-law, we heard koo-koo koo-koo and she told me that she doesn’t have a coin with her. I was like… uh? Apparently,  there’s a belief around that too.

If you have a coin in your pocket the first time of the year that you hear the sound of the cuckoo, then you will have enough money for the upcoming year!


From now on, for the sake of luck and money, are you going to always wear something with a button, let spiders make webs in your house or carry a coin with you? Do you know any other similar beliefs? If you so, you are welcomed to share them with me via comments!

Until next lucky round,
Anna.

Nouns – Masculine Exceptions

Masculine Slovene nouns generally have a consonant ending, which follows the six grammatical cases known as skloni. Although, in some cases, the nouns don’t end with a consonant, but they are also masculine.

International Words

Nouns that you might recognized without knowing Slovene, often “borrowed” from another language and don’t end with a consonant.

When declined, nothing “extra” is added. 

  • avto (car) → Grem z avtom6  (I go with car).
  • kino (movie theater) → Sem v kinu5 (I’m at the movie theater).
  • radio (radio) → Sem brez radia (I’m without radio).
  • finale (final), disko (disco)

When declined, “-j” is added.

  • taksi (taxi) → Sem v taksiju5 (I’m in the taxi).
  • hobi (hobby) → Nimam hobija2 (I don’t have hobby).
  • kanu (canoe) → Grem z kanujem6 (I go with canoe).
  • iglu (igloo), abonma (subscription), bife (bar), nivo (level), kuli (ballpoint pen)

Ending with -R

In general, masculine nouns end with a consonant. Many masculine nouns end with the consonant “-r” are considered as exceptions.

When declined, “-j” is added.

  • papir (paper) → Nimam papirja2 (I don’t have paper).
  • denar (money) → Imam težave z denarjem6 (I have problems with money).
  • some people: kuhar (cook), kolesar (biker), gozdar (forester)

When the ending is “-er“, the “e” disappears.

  • veter (wind) → Danes je brez vetra2 (Today is without wind).
  • meter (meter) → To je dva metra1 visoko (This is two meters tall).
  • Peter, Koper, Alexander

Ending with -E, -I or -O

Some masculine nouns, mostly names, can be confused with neutral gender as the ending is not a consonant but  “-e”, “-i” or “-o”.

Masculine nouns ending with “-e”, when declined “-t” is added.

  • e (father) → Grem z očetom6 v trgovino (I go with father to the store).
  • Tone, Jože, Anže, Ažbe, Jure, Bine

Masculine nouns ending with “-i”, when declined “-j” is added. 

  • i (father) → Grem z očijem6 v trgovino (I go with father to the store).
  • Franci, Timi, Edi
Oče and oči both can mean father or grandfather, depending on the region.

And oči can also mean oko (eye) in plural, which has a different ending.

Masculine names ending with “-o”, when declined nothing “extra” is added. 

  • Marko → Poročila sem se z Markom6 (I’m married with Marko).
  • Branko, Zlatko, Teo, Stanko, Miro

Ending with -A

As we know, endings in “-a” is often used with feminine nouns, but some masculine names also end with “-a”.

When declined, it has two possible endings : no change or as a feminine noun.

  • Miha → Šla sem brez Miha / Mihe2 (I went without Miha).
  • Luka, Jaka, Grega

Bonus Endings

For some short masculine nouns, when declined (all skloni), an “-ov” is added in dual and plural forms.

  • grad (castle) → V Evropi so veliko gradov2(m) (There are a lot of castles in Europe).
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 grad gradova gradovi
Sklon 2 gradu*
grada
gradov gradov
Sklon 3 gradu gradovoma gradovom
Sklon 4 grad gradova gradove
Sklon 5 gradu gradovih gradovih
Sklon 6 gradom gradovoma gradovi
  • sok (juice) → Danes sem popila dva sokova4(d) (Today I drank two juices).
  • grob (grave), volk (wolf), most (bridge), glas (voice), gozd (forest)
*And if you want to be extra classy, some short words in Second Sklon, the singular form has two versions: one is as usual and the other, the ”-a” becomes ”-u”.

  • Some that adds ”-ov”: grad (castle), glas (voice), most (bridge).
  • Some that doesn’t add ”-ov”: led (ice), med (honey)

Some masculine nouns for ”people”, when declined in First Sklon, the plural form has two versions: one is as usual and the other, a ”-j” is added.

  • kmet (farmer) → Tam so trije kmeti / kmetje1(m) (There are three farmers).
  • študent (student), gost (guest), sosed (neighbor), gospod (mister).

Learning “exceptions” is never easy, but it’s like going the extra mile! Determination and practice! If you have any questions or other words that you would like to add-in, let me know!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Learning Slovenian Slang #003

Have you ever heard some words used by Slovenian locals that you couldn’t exactly find in a dictionary? Well, those words could be slang. Learning them is an interesting way to jump into the Slovenian culture!

*Keep in mind that I live near Tržič, which is close to the Austrian border, therefore, many of the slang are influenced by German. I’ve also used Tržiški slovar, edited by Tereza Gosar and Jožica Koder, as reference.


Fruštek

means zajtrk (breakfast).  It comes from frühstück, which translates into breakfast in German. Other meals in Slovene: malica means snack (but in restaurant, especially for workers, it is a good portion of food), kosilo is lunch and večerja is dinner.


Špajza

means shramba (storeroom, pantry).  Interestingly, it has the same meaning in Kajkavian – a northern Croatian dialect, but it origins from the Austrian-German word Speise (food).


Oštarija

means gostilna (inn, pub).  It comes from the Italian word osteria, which means tavern or pub.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn Slovene po domače,
Anna.

Phrases – To Know […]

Usually when you translate verbs from one language to another, you will end up with a direct translation. Although, an interesting verb in Slovene is the verb “to know” in English, because depending  on the context, it can be translated into three Slovene versions.

Vedeti – to know

The verb vedeti (to know) is used for common knowledge or things that can be learnt through information or observation.

  • Vem, da je Slovenija v Evropi5. (I know that Slovenia is in Europe).
  • A veste koliko je 5 krat 5 (Do you know how much is 5 times 5)?
  • Vem, katera kavarna ima najboljšo kavo4 (I know which coffee shop has the best coffee).
  • Veliko veste o politiki5(You know a lot about politics).

Znati – to know

The verb znati (to know) is used for knowledge, like a language or a skill.

  • Znam slovensko4angleško4, Francosko4 in Kitajsko4.
    (I know Slovene, English, French and Chinese).
  • Pika zna plavati, kuhati in voziti (Pika knows to swim, to cook and to drive).

Poznati – to know

The verb poznati (to know) is used when you know about someone or something.

  • Poznam to pesem4 (I know this song).
  • A poznate Martino4 ki živi v Kranju5 (Do you know Martina that lives in Kranj)?
  • Tina veliko potuje in pozna veliko držav (Tina travels a lot and knows many countries).

Bonus : Spoznati – to meet, to get to know, to realize

The verb spoznati (to meet, to get to know, to realize) can be confusing because it contains the verb znati and poznati, but has a different meaning.

  • Tilen in Maja sta spoznala na jezikovnem tečaju5 (Tilen and Maja met at the course).
  • Karl hoče spoznati Katjo4 (Karl wants to get to know Katja).
  • Jan je spoznal, da voziti med prometni konici5 ni dobra ideja. (Jan realized that driving during rush hour is not a good idea).

When you’re not sure which Slovene verbs to use, always remember the context!  If you have any questions, feel free to ask me!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Happy Easter 2020!

Hello Everyone!

Wishing you a Happy Easter! Vesele Velikonočne Praznike!

Because of COVID-19, this year’s celebration is a lot more quiet. We watched Mass on TV, no visit or gathering, but we still and try to keep up the traditions as much as we could.

Happy Easter 2020 | AnnainSlovenia@wordpress.com

Happy Easter 2020

Suho meso (dry meat), suhe želodec (stuffed pig stomach), rdeči pirhi (red dyed eggs), hren (horseradish), Potica, homemade bread and of course, lots of chocolate! 🙂

Something funny, my son went straight biting into the meat while my daughter directly grabbed all the chocolates… It was a bit funny to see what was more important to them.

Anyways, happy holidays.
Stay home, stay safe! #ostanidoma

Anna.

Slovene Irregular Participle for Past and Future Tense

As we know, participles are an essential part of Past Tense and Future Tense. If the participle, which is “root of verb + L_“,  is regular, then it is very simple, but if the participle falls into the irregular group, then you will have to remember. Also, keep in mind that irregular verbs in Present Tense don’t always equal irregular participle.

Past and Future Tense

A quick reminder of the Past Tense and Future Tense “formula”.

Past Tense = To Be (Present Tense) + Root of Verb + L_
Future Tense = To Be (Future Tense) + Root of Verb + L_

Regular participles of verbs ending with -ti, such as kuhati (to cook),
-ti becomes l_, sem / bom kuhal.

Verbs ending with -iti (to go)

  • itiel) – to go
  • priti (prišel) – to come
  • oditi (odšel) – to leave
  • preiti (prešel) – to go over
  • uiti (ušel) – to escape
  • zaiti (zašel) – to stray
  • raziti se (razšel se) – to break up

Verbs ending with -jesti (to eat)

  • jesti (jedel) – to eat
  • pojesti (pojedel) – to come
  • najesti (najedel) – to appease one’s hunger

Verbs ending with -pasti (to fall)

  • pasti (padel) – to fall
  • napasti (napadel) – to assault
  • odpasti (odpadel) – to be cancelled
  • propasti (propadel) – to collapse
  • razpasti (razpadel) – to disintegrate
  • zapasti (zapadel) – to lapse

Verbs ending with -nesti (to carry)

  • nesti (nešel) – to fall
  • obnesti (odnešel) – to assault
  • odnesti (odnešel) – to carry away
  • prinesti (prinešel) – to bring
  • vnesti (vnešel) – to insert
  • nanesti (nanešel) – to apply

Verbs ending with –reti (not a verb!)

  • odpreti (odprl) – to open
  • zapreti (zaprl) – to close
  • zavreti (zavrl) – to brake
  • scvreti (scvrl) – to fry
  • umreti (umrl) – to die
  • zadreti se (zadrl se) – to yell

Verbs ending with –či

  • reči (rekel) – to say
  • peči (pekel) – to bake
  • teči (tekel) – to run
  • obleči (oblekel) – to get dressed
  • odreči (odrekel) – to give up
  • vleči (vlekel) – to pull
  • vreči (vrgel) – to throw
  • streči (stregel) – to serve
  • doseči (dosegel) – to reach
  • leči (legel) – to lie
  • moči (mogel) – to be able to
  • preseči (presegel) – to exceed

And others…

  • najti (našel) – to find
  • gristi (grizel) – to bite
  • krasti (kradel) – to steal
  • tepsti (tepel) – to fight
  • zmesti (zmedel) – to confuse
  • bosti (bodel) – to sting
  • splesti (spletel) – to knit
  • zebsti (zeblo) – to feel cold
  • vesti se (vedel se) – to behave
  • navesti (navedel) – to quote

I’m sure you are already familiar with some of the irregular participle. As you can see,  they follow a certain pattern, but not always. Most of them you will still need to memorize, but same as always, the more you will use them, the easier you will remember! 🙂 If you have any questions or any that you would like me to add, let me know!

Good thing to note is that the irregular verbs biti and imeti have regular participle; bil and imel.

And remember that biti in Past Tense is sem bil, but in Future Tense, it is just bom.

Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

 

Understanding Slovenian Idioms #006

Every language has idioms and expressions, Slovene is no different. Compared to grammar, learning idioms is a funnier and more practical way to use daily Slovene. It is also a creative way to get familiar with the Slovenian culture and heritage!

  • Odkriti Ameriko – To discover America
    It doesn’t mean to go on a trip to  America as a trip, but like Columbus: to discover something new.
  • Španska vas – Spanish village
    Where exactly do you look for a Spanish village on a map? Actually, it doesn’t refer to a specific place, but somewhere that is completely unknown (to you).
  • Narediti se Francoza – To make oneself French
    It doesn’t refer to getting a French citizenship or residency, not even having the lifestyle of a French. It simply means to do something stupid or to act indifferent.
The audio file is a courtesy of my friend Jure from Slovenian Word Of The Day.  You can listen to his explanation of vocabulary words, such as vas, on his website.

Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s speak like Slovenians,
Anna.

Audio : Slovenian Word of the Day

Hey guys,

many of you are curious about how “authentic” Slovene actually sound. Unfortunately,  I am not able to personally fulfill this request 😦 But… I did found a website that has Slovene audio, and some fantastic material as well.

Jure from Slovenian Word Of The Day does an awesome job. He has a list of vocabulary word with an audio of how it is pronounced (YES!) and he also adds in some practical examples and expressions.


On a side note, in a very near future, Jure will be helping me adding audio to some of my posts! I’m so excited and grateful! Finally, you will be able to “listen” to Slovene and not just reading it!

Stay tune,
Anna.

Slovene Adverbs in General

Adverbs, known as prislov, are words that are used to modify an adjective, a verb and even another adverb. Those words are not declined like a noun would be, therefore they do no change form.

Although, in some cases, depending on the situation, different adverbs might be used. By asking some basic but specific questions, it can help identify which adverb to use.

Time (Cašovni Prislov)

For adverbs of time, the question word used is kdaj, which means “when”.

  • danes (today) / včeraj (yesterday) / jutri (tomorrow)
  • zjutraj (in the morning), (zvečer (in the evening) / ponoči (at night)
  • dopoldan (forenoon) / popoldan (afternoon)
  • zgodaj (early) / pozno (late)
  • takoj (immediately) / zdaj (now) / potem (later on)
  • vedno (always) / nikoli (never)
  • pozimi (Winter) / spomladi (Spring) / poleti (Summer) / jeseni (Autumn)

For example,

  1. Zgodaj ste. → You are early.
  2. Pridem takoj. →  I’m coming immediately.

Amount (Merni Prislov)

For adverbs for amount, the question word asked is koliko , which means “how much, how many”.

  • veliko (a lot) / malo (a little)
  • več (more) / manj (less)
  • preveč (too much) / premalo (too little, not enough)
  • dovolj (enough)
  • toliko (this much)
  • nekaj (some)
When using “quantify” a noun, the second sklon is being used.

Here’s how to express quantities in Slovene.

For example,

  1. Dovolj imam! → I have enough!
  2. Sem kupila veliko kruha2. → I bought a lot of bread.

Place (Krajevni Prislov)

For adverbs of place, two questions words can be used kam and kje, both means “where”.

Kam is used for a destination, like kam greste (where are you going). Kje is used for a location, like kje ste (where are you). Depending on which question is  adverb used might be different.

KAM? KJE? Translation
sem tukaj here
tja tam there
drugam drugje elsewhere
domov doma home
ven zunaj out, outside
noter notri inside
naprej spredaj ahead
nazaj zadaj back
gor zgoraj up
dol spodaj down

And some adverbs remains the same.

  • daleč (far) / blizu (close)
  • okoli (around)
  • vmes (in between)

For example,

  1. Grem ven. → I go out.
  2. Zunaj sem. → I am outside.
  3. Sem šla daleč. → I went far.

Manner (Načinovni Prislov)

For adverbs of manner is probably one of the most used adverb. The question word used is kako, which means “how”. It is used to describe how an verb is done.

Do not confuse with adjective, which is used to describe how a noun is. Therefore, an adjective is declined, but an adverb is not.

Here’s about Slovene adjectives in general.
  • lepo (nicely) / grdo (uglily)
  • hitro (quickly) / počasno (slowly)
  • dobro (goodly) / slabo (badly)
  • zanimivo (interestingly) / dolgočasno (boringly)
  • močno (strongly) / šibko (weakly)
  • glasno (loudly) / tiho (quietly)

For example,

  1. Lepo govorite slovensko. → You speak Slovene nicely.
  2. Hitro je šel v službo → He went quickly to work.

Just as in English, the position of the adverb in a sentence is not fixed, it always depends on the context. If you have any questions or adverbs that you would like to add to the list, let me know!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.