When to Use the Second Sklon – Genitive

The rodilnik sklon is one of the most commonly used sklon along with the First Sklon – Nominative and the Fourth Sklon – Accusative.  As mentioned in Second Sklon – Genitive, it is used for:

  • noun that is directly affected by a negation verb,
  • following specific preposition and
  • double nouns (samostalnikX + samostalnik2).

The Second sklon is also used in other situations.

Here’s other uses of the second sklon

  1. following specific verb

    • bati se (to fear, to be afraid of) | i.e. I’m afraid of spiders Bojim se pajkov2(M).

      If the fear is in general, like spiders, the noun is in its plural form.
    • dotakniti se (to touch) | i.e. I wish to touch a rainbow Želim se dotakniti mavrice2(E).
    • veseliti se (to be glad, to look forward) | i.e. I look forward to the holidays Veselim se počitnic2(M).
    • najesti se (to appease one’s hunger) and napiti se (to appease one’s thirst)
  2. for dates
    For example, today we are April 9th → Danes smo devetega aprila2.

    In Slovene, there are different ways to express dates and times.

    How to Say Dates and Times in Slovene – Part 1
    How to Say Dates and Time in Slovene – Part 2
  3. the noun is quantified količina
    • Koliko [samostanik]2…? (How many, how much…?)
      i.e. How much time do you have ? → Koliko časa2(E) imaš?
    • following quantifying adverbs and nouns
      Such as veliko (a lot), malo (a little), liter, škatla (box)…
      i.e. Imam veliko časa2(E) / Pijem liter4(E) vode2(E).
    •  5 and more
      As you already know, 1 is ednina, 2 is dvojina, 3 and 4 is množina and when the number is 5+, the noun is second sklon, plural form.
      i.e. To sta dve litra1(D) vina2(E)To je pet litrov2(M) vina2(E)

      With the second sklon, some categories of nouns are only used in ednina or in množina and more rules apply.

      How to Express Quantities in Slovene – Second Sklon

The second sklon can seem very complex at first, and it is a completely normal impression, but DON’T PANIC – take one small bit at the time! 🙂 Learning a new language is a long process, and it takes time and practice!

If you have any questions, feedback or need for help, don’t be shy and contact me!

Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,

Second Sklon – Genitive

As you already know, there are 6 grammatical cases – skloni in Slovene. Knowing how and when to apply them is primordial.

Before getting to the second sklon, you should already know the First Sklon – Nominative and the Fourth Sklon – Accusative.

If you’ve read my previous posts, you will know by now that Slovene word is masculine, feminine or neutral and it has a singular, dual and plural form. Each form can be used with all the 6 grammatical cases – so, in Slovene, every noun has 18 versions.

Second Sklon – Genitive

The second sklon is also known as rodilnik or genitiv in Slovene and it is the “Genitive” case. The rodilnik sklon is one of the most used form of the nouns along with imenovalnik and tožilnik.

Here’s the table for the Sklon 2, Genitive (I don’t have…)

(E) Nimam starega telefona
starega psa
nove torbe velikega letala
vročega morja
(D) Nimam starih telefonov novih torb_ velikih letal_
(M) Nimam starih telefonov novih torb_ velikih letal_
Reminder:  (E) ednina/singular, (D) dvojina/dual, (M) množina/plural and (m) moški/masculine, (ž) ženski/feminine, (s) srednji/neutral.

As you can see, in the Genitive case, a lot of endings are the same. Refer to the colors:

  • the masculine singular is the same as the neutral singular,
  • the masculine dual and plural is the same and
  • the feminine dual and plural forms have the exact same ending as the neutral dual and plural forms.

❤ And here’s an simplified version of the endings, easier to remember :

 SKLON 2 (m) (ž) (s)
(M IH –OV* IH_ IH_
Reminder: is the famous bracket (c, č, š, ž j) where the o changes into e.

When to use the second sklon

  1. the noun is directly affected by a negation verb
    For example, I don’t have (what? who?) a telephone  Nimam (česa? koga?) telefona2(E)I don’t drink coffee Ne pijem kave2(E).
  2. following specific preposition
    • iz or s/z(from) – to answer the question Od kod ste? (Where are you from?) | i.e. I’m from Canada Sem iz Kanade2 / She is from China Ona je s Kitajske2.
      The prepositions v and na – Fourth Sklon

      When we use the preposition v in the fourth sklon, we use the preposition iz in the second sklon.

      When we use the preposition na for the fourth sklon, we use the preposition s/z. (s is used if the following word starts with C, Č, F, H, K, P, S, Š and T).
    • brez(without), od… do (from… to), blizu* (near), zraven/poleg (next to, beside), nasproti (facing), mimo* (passing by), preko (across), sredi (in the middle), okoli* (around) and izmed (among all).
      * Please note that those are considered as “fake preposition” as they categorized as adverbs.
  3. the double nouns (samostalnikX + samostalnik2)
    The Slovene noun + noun is like two nouns connected with the preposition “of” in English.
    For example, let’s use school of Slovene (šolaX + slovenščina2) with different skloni:

    • Sklon 1: To je šola1 slovenščine/To ni šola1 slovenščine2
    • Sklon 4: Grem v šolo4 slovenščine2 /  Ne grem v šolo4 slovenščine2  / Imam šolo4 slovenščine2 danes.
    • Sklon 2: Nimam šole2 slovenščine2 danes.

      Notice how the first noun is used with the corresponding sklon and how the second noun is always in its second sklon form.

The second sklon is used at other occasions as well, but if you can remember and learn those written here, you’re already doing a great job! I know it’s a lot of information at once, but

Vaja dela mojstra – Practice makes perfect.

If you are up to learn more uses of the second sklon, you can check When to use the Second Sklon – Genitive.

I remember how confused while learning the first, fourth and second sklon. Therefore, if you are currently feeling confused, overwhelmed and/or completely lost – don’t worry, it is absolutely normal and part of the learning (and trust me, it will get better!).

If you have any questions, because you might have: don’t be shy and contact me for help! If you have any other learning tricks, please do share with me – we are all learners!

Knowing the first, fourth and second sklon  (which are the most commonly used ones) – you already know half (50%!) of the 6 Slovene grammatical cases! Woohoo! 😀

Update – here is my Cheat sheet “Table of Skloni “. More can be found under Learning Materials.

Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Don’t give up, let’s learn,

How to Express Quantities in Slovene – Second Sklon

As I’ve mentioned before, quantity or amount – količina, in Slovene, is expressed with the Second Sklon – Genitive.  The main dilemma with količina is to know which form, ednina (E) or množina (M), to use. as some nouns are only expressed in one form.

Koliko – how much, how many

Koliko means how many or how much.  Frequent use of koliko with other skloni includes:

  • Sklon 1: Koliko je ura? Ura je ena → What is the time? Time is one.
  • Sklon 1: Koliko je to? To je 3 evri How much is this? This is 3 euros.
  • Sklon 4: Koliko stane? Stane 3 evre → How much does it cost? It costs 3 euros.

Koliko [samostanik]2(E/M)…?

One frequent use of koliko with the second sklon is Koliko [samostanik]2(E/M)…?

  • Koliko časa2(E) imate? How much time do you have?
  • Koliko psov2(M) imate How many dogs do you have?

If you have noticed, čas is in ednina, and pes is in množina.

With the second sklon, some nouns are only expressed in ednina, while others are only used in množina (with other skloni, some nouns can still have ednina, dvojina and množina form).

Here’s a few guidelines:

Only singular – samo ednina

  • šport – such as smučanje (skiing), tenis
  • tekočina – liquid such as kava (coffee), pivo (beer), vino, voda (water)…
  • prah – powder such as sladkor (sugar), moka (flour), sol (salt), poper (pepper)…
  • zelenjava – most vegetables are expressed in ednina such as krompir (potatoe), solata (salad), korenje (carrot), brokoli
    Exceptions: kumara (cucumber), bučka (pumkin), jajčevec (eggplant)… are expressed in množina.
  • others nounssadje (fruit), hrana (food), čas (time), denar (money), dela (work)…

Only plural – samo množina

  • sadje – most fruits are expressed in množina such as jabolko (apple), banana, jagoda (strawberry)…
    Exceptions: (exotic fruits) such as mango, melona, liči, grozdje, ananas… are expressed in ednina.
  • other nouns (that comes in pairs) – such as očala (glasses), vrata (doors), hlače (pants), tla (floors), počitnice (holidays)…

Adverbs that quantify

The noun following quantifying adverbs is always in množina form (EXCEPT if they are only used in singular form!).

Adverbs that quantify are:

  • veliko (a lot), malo (a little), pol (half of), polna (full of)
  • preveč (too much), dovolj (enough), premalo (too little),
  • nekaj (somewhat), manj (less), več (more) and
  • nič (nothing) ⭐ double negation

For example, I need some onions Potrebujem nekaj čebul2(M). / I need some flour Potrebujem nekaj moke2(E).

For nouns that can be used in both ednina and množina, you have to be careful as to what you want to express.
i.e. Pojedla sem nekaj torte2(E) →  I ate up some (slice of) cake VS Pojedla sem nekaj tort2(M) →  I ate up some cakes (many whole cakes, without actual number).

Nouns that quantify

The noun following quantifying nouns can be ednina or množina form, according to the first guideline above.

Nouns that quantify are:

  • kilogram, liter,
  • škatla (box), vrečka (bag),
  • kozarec (glass), skodelica (cup), steklenica (glass bottle),  plastenka (plastic bottle),
  • krožnik (plate), kepica (scoop), lonček (small pot)

For example, I need 1 box of salad Potrebujem eno4 škatlo4solate2.

5 and more

When the amount is more than 5, the noun is in second sklon in its plural form but the conjugated verb is in singular form.
i.e. To sta dva litra1(D) vina2(E)To je pet litrov2(M) vina2(E)

When a general statement is made, using a quantifying noun with a noun, the verb is always conjugated in singular.
i.e. Veliko ljudi2(M) je bogat zajtrk4 / Malo ljudi2(M)pije čaj4.

Knowing how to express quantities will help you greatly, especially when you’re at the stores (koliko vrst2(M) kruha2(E) imate?) – but it is also very useful for composing your own questions and answers when you’re meeting someone new (koliko bratov2(M) imate?).

If you have any questions or comments, don’t hesitate and contact me and I will be more than happy to help you out with your Slovene!

Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,