Slovene “Pre-Made” Phrases – Part 1

An easy way to learn how to express yourself in Slovene is to use some “pre-made” phrases. They are a short set of words, usually connected with a specific sklon or personal pronoun, in either third or fourth sklon. They are quite versatile and simple to use. Two things to pay attention to are:

  • the sklon used for the following noun and
  • the personal pronoun, whether it’s in third (Z3) and fourth (Z4) sklon.

Of course, the phrases cannot be literally translated in English, but you should be able to understand the meaning.

If there is a sklon specific preposition, then it has priority and it will determine which sklon to use.

Most of the phrases can be used with conjunctions, such as če (if), ko (when),
da (that), ker (because) and so on.

The form of the object (Z3 and Z4) will depend on the personal pronoun (Z1) used.
For example, jaz1 is mi3/me4, on1 is mu3/ga4, ona1 is ji3/jo4 and so on.

The verb is conjugated according to the subject: singular, dual or plural.
For example, for the verb biti (to be) in singular is je, dual is sta and plural is so.

Všeč mi3 je + […]1 – I like […]

  • Všeč mi3 je čokoladna torta1 (I like chocolate cake).
  • Všeč mu3 je, ko se smejiš (He likes when you smile).
  • Všeč so mi3 živali1 (I like animals).
  • Všeč jim3 je, ko/če prideš na obisk (They like when/if you come visit).

Ime mi3 je + […]1 – I am named […]

  • Ime mi3 je Anna1 (I am named Anna).
  • Ime ji3 je Leja1 (She is named Leja).

Rad(a) imam + […]4 – I like […]

  • Rad(a) imam kavo4 (I like coffee).
  • Rad te4 ima (He likes you).
  • Radi imajo počitnice (They like holidays).

Boli me4 + […]1 – It hurts me […]

  • Boli me4 glava1 (My head is hurting me).
  • Bolijo me4 noge1 (My legs are hurting me).
  • Boli ga4 hrbet, ko/če dolgo hodi (His back hurts him when/if he walks for long).

Zebe me4 + v […]4 – I am cold […]

  • Zebe me4 v roke4 (My hands are cold).
  • Zebe me4, ko sneži (I’m cold when it snows).

Zanima me4 + […]1 – It interests me […]

  • Zanima me4 vezenje1 (I am interested in embroidery / Embroidery interests me).
  • Zanima jo4 risanje1 (She is interested in drawing / Drawing interests her).
  • Zanimajo me4 čevlji1 (Shoes interest me).
  • Zanima me4, če je majica še na voljo (I am wondering if the t-shirt is still available).

Skrbi me4 + […]1 – It worries me […]

  • Skrbi me4 prihodnost1 (I worry about the future).
  • Skrbi me4 zate4 (I worry about you).
  • Skrbi jo4, ker si sam doma (It worries her because you are home alone).

Veseli me4 + […]1 – It makes me happy […]

  • Veseli me4 glasba1 (Music makes me happy).
  • Veseli me4, da smo se srečali (It makes me happy that we met).
  • Veseli me4, da je zime konec (It makes me happy that the winter is over).

Vroče mi3 je + […] – I am hot […]

  • Vroče mi3 je na soncu5 (I am hot in the sun).
  • Vroče ji3 je v trebuhu5 (Her stomach is hot).
  • Vroče mi3 je, ko tečem (I am hot when I run).

Težko mi3 je + […] – It is hard for me

  • Težko mi3 je, ko ne razumem, kaj rečes (It is difficult for me when I don’t understand what you are saying).
  • Težko mi3 je, kadar te ni doma (It is hard for me when you are not home).

Strah me4 je + […]2 – I am scared […]

  • Strah me4 je mraka2 (I am afraid of the dark).
  • Strah me4 je, ko hodi sama ponoči (It scares me when she walks alone at night).

More Phrases

  • Moti me4 + […]1 – It bothers me […]
  • Slabo mi3 je + […] – It makes me sick […]
  • Peče me4 + […]1 – It burns me
  • Privlači me4 + […]1 – It attracts me […]
  • Jasno mi3 je + […] – It is clear to me […]
  • Sram me4 je + […]2 – I’m ashamed […]
  • Groza me4 je + […]2 – I am terrified […]
  • Lepo mi3 je + […] – It is nice to me […]
  • Dolgčas mi3 je + […] – It bores me […]
  • Prijetno mi3 je + […] – It is pleasant to me […]

No need to mention that there are many more useful “pre-made” phrases. Most can also be used in negation, as well as in past and future tense. In those cases, the Order of Word is applied and it can become quite complicated (to be continued in Part 2).

I’m sure that you have heard or know more phrases, if there are any that you would like me to add to the list or if you have any questions, do let me know!

Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.

Demonstrative Pronouns in Slovene – This and That

Demonstrative pronouns, also known as kazalni zaimki, are pronouns that show or point at something. In general, there are “three levels” of demonstrative pronouns in Slovene – which are sorted depending on the distance, both in time and space, between the object that is pointed at and the speaker.

“This” (tam) and “that” (tistim and onim) are the same as in English, but instead of having just a singular and plural form, the Slovene form is “fully” declined. This means:

It might seems like a lot, but please do not panic. Keep reading.

This – Ta

The demonstrative pronouns “ta” is used to points at objects that is directly in the vicinity of the speaker or something that is close to the speaker. It can also be used to refer to something that has just been mentioned.

For example,

  • Ta teden ima dopust (This week I have holidays).
  • Vidite, ta punca, ki se sedi pred vami, je Petrova hčerka (You see, this girl sitting in front of you, is Peter’s daughter).
  • Fiona rada ima to mavrično torto (Fiona likes this rainbow cake).

Tisti – That

The demonstrative pronoun “tisti” is used to indicate something that is relatively distant from the speaker. It can also be used with something that had been previously mentioned.

For example,

  • Tisti tam je naš nov sosed (That one there is our new neighbor).
  • Lani sem rodila hčerko, tistega dne ne bom nikoli pozabila (Last year I gave birth to my daughter, that day I will never forget).
  • Hodil je v tisto šolo na drugi strani parka (He went to that school on the other side of park).

Oni – That

The demonstrative pronoun “oni” is used to indicate something that is very distant from the speaker. It is also use to point at something that is unknown, unnamed or unspecific.

For example,

  • Ta skupina otrok se igra v igralnici, oni pa bere pod drevesom (This group of kids plays in the playground, that one reads under the tree).
  • Ona stran gozda je porasla z grmovjem (That side of the forest has grown with bushes).
  • V parku vedno srečaš tega ali onega znanca (You always meet this or that acquaintance in the store).

Table for “Ta

1ta – ta – tota – ti – titi – te – ta
2tega – te – tegatehteh
3temu – tej – temutematem
4ta/tega – to – tota – ti – tite – te -ta
5pri tem – pri tej – pri tempri tehpri teh
6s tem – s to – s tems temas temi

Table for “Tisti

1tisti – tista – tistotista – tisti – tistitisti – tiste – tista
2tistega – tiste – tistegatistihtistih
3tistemu – tisti – tistemutistimatistim
4tisti/tistega – tisto – tistotista – tisti – tistitiste – tiste –tista
5pri tistem – pri tisti – pri tistempri tistihpri tistih
6s tistim – s tisto – s tistims tistimas tistimi

Table for “Oni

1oni – ona – onoona – oni – onioni – one – ona
2onega –one – onegaonihonih
3onemu – oni – onemuonimaonim
4oni/onega – ono – onoona – oni – onione – one –ona
5pri onem – pri oni – pri onempri onihpri onih
6s onim – s ono – s onims onimas onimi
Reminder:  (Eednina/singular, (Ddvojina/dual, (Mmnožina/plural and (mmoški/masculine, (žženski/feminine, (ssrednji/neutral.

As you can see, there are a lot of similarities through all three demonstratives pronouns:

  • marked in blue are -e instead of the usual -i,
  • marked in bold are the same for all three genders,
  • marked in red are the same in dual and plural forms and
  • tisti and oni, they are basically the same thing: just replace “tist-” with “on-.

So, the demonstrative pronouns in Slovene go from nearest to farthest: tatistioni. For example,

  • To knjigo, ki jo imam v roki, berem zdaj (This book, that I have in my hand, I am reading now).
  • Tiste, ki so na polici, bom brala otrokom zvečer. (Those, that are on the shelf, I will read to my kids in the evening).
  • Ne vem, kdaj bom dobila one, ki sem jih naročila v knjižnici (I don’t know when I will get those, that I ordered from the library).

Demonstrative pronouns in Slovene have a lot more “forms” that in English, but don’t worry – it’s all about endings that you probably already know, and if not, just take it slow. Practice makes perfect! If you have any questions or comments, don’t hesitate and ask me!

Understanding Slovenian Idioms #011

Using Slovenian idioms is an interesting way to learn Slovene and to have a better understanding of its cultural heritage. It is a different, but fun method to learn grammar!

  • Sedem debelih krav – Seven fat cows
    Having seven fat cows means to be in a time of prosperity, richness and abundance. On the opposite, “sedem suhih krav” (seven skinny cows) means to be in a time of crisis. Each “cows” also refers to a year – so seven years of prosperity.
  • Pet krav za en groš – Five cows for one penny
    Doesn’t it seem like an amazing deal? Well… it actually means that something is too good to be true, and most likely incredible, absurd. Such a nonsense that it is unlikely to be real. (Who would exchange five cows for one penny…? I know I wouldn’t.)
  • Delati za tri – To work for three
    It means to work a lot, as much as three people together! This expression mainly emphases on the “za tri” (for three). Therefore, it can also be used as following: “jesti za tri” (to eat for three), močen za tri (strong as three), veljati za tri (to count for three)…

Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.

Slovene Nouns to Adjectives – Vrstni Pridevnik

As we know, adjectives are used to describe or modify how a noun is. There are also different types of adjectives in Slovene, but they can’t be directly translated into English:

  • lastnostni (kakovostni) pridevnik (characteristic or qualitative adjective),
  • svojilni pridevnik (possessive adjective) and
  • vrstni pridevnik (“kind” adjective).

Lastnostni pridevniki or kakovostni pridevniki are descriptive adjectives. They are used to describe specific characteristic that are proper to the noun (color, size, age, shape) and answer the question kakšen (how is). For example,

  • Vozim hiter avto4. (I drive a fast car).
  • To je velika hiša1 (This is a big house).
  • Kopali smo se v toplem morju5 (We swam in the warm sea).

As you can see, the adjective always follows the declension of the noun.

To learn more about declension of adjective, read Slovene Adjectives in General.

Svojilni pridevniki are possessive adjectives used to describe the ownership of the noun. They answer the question čigav (whose). For example,

  • Tim vozi Markov traktor4 (Tim is driving Mark’s tractor).
  • Mira je Janina sestra1 (Mira is Jana’s sister).
  • Ne maram sosedovega psa2(I don’t like the neighbor’s dog).

As you can see, -ov + the corresponding ending is added to masculine nouns, while -in + the corresponding ending is added to feminine nouns.

Please note that possessive adjectives are different from possessive pronouns. Learn more here.

Vrstni pridevniki are adjectives “made from nouns”. They are also used to describe a noun, but specifically the “type”, “kind” or ”category”, which answer the question “kateri” (which). The adjective’s endings can be put into groups, but unfortunately without any patterns.

Adjectives ending with -ni

  • turist (tourist) – turistično mesto (touristic town)
  • jagoda (strawberry) – jagodna marmelada (strawberry jam)
  • mesto (town) – mestni avtobus (city bus)
  • čokolada (chocolate) – čokoladna torta (chocolate cake)

Adjectives ending with –ski or –ški

  • morje (sea) – morski sadeži (seafood)
  • Slovenija (Slovenia) – slovenska zastava (Slovenian flag)
  • nedelja (Sunday) – nedeljsko kosilo (Sunday lunch)
  • otrok (child) – otroško igrišče (children playground)

Adjectives ending with -ov

  • oreh (walnut) – orehova potica (walnut potica)
  • borovnica (blueberry) – borovničev sok (blueberry juice)
  • sir (cheese) – sirov zavitek (cheese strudel)
  • kokos (coconut) – kokosovo mleko (coconut milk)

Adjectives ending with -nji

  • jutro (morning) – jutranje vaje (morning exercises)
  • noter (interior) – notranji bazen (inside pool)
  • jutri (tomorrow) – jutrišnji dan (tomorrow day)
  • blizu (near) – bližnji vzhod (nearby exit)

Adjectives ending with -ji

  • pes (dog) – pasji frizer (dog groomer)
  • maček (cat) – mačja trava (catnip)
  • medved (bear) – medvedja šapa (bear paw)
The difference between lastnostni pridevnik and vrstni pridevnik is the question that they answer. Lastnostni pridevnik is used for description of shape, color, size and age, while vrstni pridevnik is used to describe the type or kind.
Tim potuje po Sloveniji z novim modrim električnim avtom6 (Tim travels around Slovenia with a new blue electric car).
Dalia ne mara svežega kozjega mleka2 (Dalia doesn’t like fresh goat milk).
Martin rad je slastno mehiško hrano4 (Martin likes to eat delicious Mexican food).

Knowing that some adjectives can be made from noun is a fun and useful way to learn Slovene. It’s like killing two birds with one stone! With adjectives, no matter which type, do remember that the declension is the same as the noun. If you have any questions, comments or adjectives that you would like to add, please let me know!

Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.

Understanding Slovenian Idioms #010

An interesting way to learn Slovene (and speak like Slovenians) is to know and understand how to use their idioms. And the day that you will actually be able to use an idiom correctly, you will be so proud!

  • Nositi hlače – To wear pants
    It means “to be in charge”, the one that makes the decision and has the last word. There is a similar expression in English “to wear the trousers” and in French “porter la culotte”.
  • Kapo dol – Hat down
    It means “bravo”, when you recognize someone’s achievements. The expression comes from the habit of taking the hat off as a sign or greeting or respect.
  • Gledati skozi rožnata očala – To see through rose-colored glasses
    It doesn’t refer to a fashion item, but it means to beautify something, like to see something more beautiful that it really is. Just like the French expression “voir la vie en rose”.

Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Understanding Slovenian Idioms #009

An interesting way to learn and understand Slovene is through its local idioms. While using them, you get to speak like Slovenians and get an insight of the heritage and culture.

  • Beliti si glavo – To whiten your head
    It doesn’t mean to paint your head in white, but to think about something very hard in order to remember it (so much that you might grow some white hairs…).
  • Iz te moke ne bo kruha – From this flour there will be no bread
    As we know, flour is needed to make bread, but also other ingredients and actions (such as kneading and baking) as well. It means that not every effort will yield the expected result.
  • Nositi vodo v Savo – To bring water in Sava
    Sava is a river that goes through Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia. Bringing water to Sava, means that all efforts made no difference.

Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.

Video – Opposites in Slovene

Hey guys,
as my yearly subscription is coming to an end, I’ve decided to stop using Powtoon EDU for creating video. I’m going to to try out instead. I have to say that I am quite happy with the results and how easy it is to use. I hope that you will like it too!

If you want to try for your projects, you can use my Referral Link (here).

We will both earn Canva Credits for premium elements for free!

I didn’t make a “vocabulary list” for “Slovene opposites – Nasprostja” because I highly encourage that you create your own! By writing them down and using them, it will be a lot easier to remember!

Do let me know how you like (or not like) my new video. For more videos, don’t forget to subscribe to my YouTube channel: Anna in Slovenia!

Understanding Slovenian Idioms #008

An interesting and playful way to discover Slovene as a language is by learning the idioms. Some doesn’t seem to make much sense at first, but what’s more significant is to understand the meaning behind the words!

  • Imeti maslo na glavi – To have butter on the head
    It doesn’t actually mean to have butter on the head, but instead, it means to be guilty of something – like to have a guilty conscience.
  • Skakati čez plot – To jump over the fence
    It doesn’t refer to an innocent athletics action as to jump over the fence, but it actually means to be cheating in marriage. s not to jump “over” the fence, just across the fence, which means to
  • Ugrizniti v kislo jabolko – To bite into a sour apple
    It is obviously not very pleasant to bite into a sour apple instead of a sweet one – it means having to deal with something unpleasant or to go ahead and “bite the bullet”.

Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.

Ask Anna about Slovene #005

The best way to learn and improve your understanding of Slovene is by asking questions and finding the answers! I’m a strong believer that there are no question too silly to ask, but on the contrary, that all questions are good ones.

Question by Jasmine

How do you say “What’s your/his/her name” and “What is your mom’s/dad’s name?” and how is it related to the third sklon?

Anna’s Answer

One of the first conversation questions that we learn is ” Kako ti3/vam3 je ime? ” (What is your name?). The personal pronoun used is indeed in third sklon, but why?

The best explanation that I can find is by looking at the reflexive pronouns se4 and si3, because the indication for third sklon is the same: indirect object, which answers the question komu (whom).

For example,

  • umiti se4 (to wash myself) – the direct object of the verb is directly the subject (myself) ∴ the reflexive pronoun is in fourth sklon.
  • umiti si3 lase4 (to wash my hair) – the direct object of the verb is not directly the subject but part of the subject (my hair) ∴ the reflexive pronoun is in third sklon.

If we transpose it,

  • Kako ti3 je ime1? (What is your name?) – the direct object of the verb is not directly the subject but part of the subject (your name) ∴ the reflexive pronoun is in third sklon.

The personal pronouns in third sklon are as follow:

1mi / mene (my)nama (our two)nam (our)
2ti /tebi (your)vama (your two)vam (your)
3mu /njemu (his)
ji/njej (her)
jima / njima (their two)jim / njim (their)
Reminder:  1, 2, 3 is for first, second and third person and (Eednina/singular, (Ddvojina/dual, (Mmnožina/plural.
And the short version is used.

Therefore, to say ” What’s your/his/her name” is Slovene is Kako ti/mu/ji je ime“.

As for how to say ” What is your mom’s/dad’s name”, it is really simple: “Kako je ime1 tvoji mami3/ tvojemu očetu3“. You just declined the corresponding possessive determiner (moj, tvoj) and the noun in third sklon.

That was a very stimulating question and I just love it! If you have any questions about Slovene, don’t hesitate and let me know! I would to look for the answer and improving our understanding of Slovene, all together!

Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.

Possessive Pronouns in Slovene

Possessive pronouns in Slovene are also known as svojilni zaimek. Same as in English, they are a group of words that are used to indicate possession or ownership of something. It also answers the question word čigav, which means whose.

In Slovene, there are:

  • three persons: first person, second person and third person,
  • three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter and
  • three grammatical numbers: singular, dual and plural.

In this end, there is a lot of subjects, which are the personal pronouns in first sklon. But possessive pronouns are simpler, as the gender distinction is only in singular third person.

Personal Possessive Pronouns / Adjective

Here are the basic (first sklon) form of the personal possessive pronouns in Slovene for all three genders: masculine (m), feminine (ž) and neuter (s).

Singular Form – Ednina


Dual Form – Dvojina

Our twonajinnajinanajin
Your twovajinvajinanajina
Their twonjunnjunanjuno

Plural Form – Množina

Reminder* is the famous bracket (cčšž, j) where the o changes into e.

These possessive pronouns in Slovene are actually possessive determiners AND possessive pronouns in English. But in Slovene, they acts similar to Slovene adjectives, which means that they are declined following the corresponding noun. Remember that the gender of the subject matters for the singular third person (he, she, it – his, her, its).

Here’s a few examples as possessive determiners, which needs to be used with a noun.

  • Moj pes1 je bel (My dog is white).
  • Jan nima njegovega telefona2 (Jan doesn’t have his phone).
  • Mina je njuno kosilo4 (Mina eats her lunch).
  • Peter je šel z našim učiteljem6 (Peter went with our teacher).

Bonus: Slovene is a precise language, therefore:

  • Filip je najin sin1 (Filip is our son – both parents).

Here’s a few examples as possessive pronouns, which are used “alone”. But remember that the function of a pronouns is to replace a noun. Therefore, subject, gender and grammatical numbers all have to correspond.

  • Čigava je hiša? Moja. (Whose house it is? Mine.)
  • Čigav je pes? Njegov. (Whose dog it is? His.)
  • Čigavo je kolo? Njeno. (Whose bicycle it is? Hers)

Bonus: “Ta” is masculine and also feminine. “To” is neuter.

  • Ta je moj1 (This is mine).
  • Ta je moja1 (This is mine).
  • To je moje/naše/vaše1 (This is mine/ours/yours).

Reflexive Possessive Pronouns

In Slovene, there is reflexive possessive pronouns, known as povratni svojilni zaimek. It is used to express the property of the subject.

There is just “one word” used to express it for all the different subjects: svoj (one’s own) BUT it is declined by gender, grammatical numbers and skloni following the general table of endings, according

Singular Form – Ednina

SKLON 1svojsvojasvoje
SKLON 2svojegasvojesvojega
SKLON 3svojemusvojisvojemu
SKLON 4svojega ❤
SKLON 5svojemsvojisvojem
SKLON 6svojimsvojosvojim

Here’s a few examples of reflexive possessive pronouns.

  • Nina je svoje kosilo4 (Nina eats her own lunch).
  • Mark nima svojega avta2 (Mark doesn’t have his own car).
  • Jan sedi pri svoji hiši5 (Jan sits by his own house).

Bonus: Look at the “slight” difference in meaning.

  • Teja mu3 je prinesla njegov telefon4 (Teja brought him his phone).
  • Teja mu3 je prinesla svoj telefon4 (Teja brought him her phone).

Possessive Adjectives from Names

When a noun is the owner, the possessive adjective from names are used – svojilni pridevniki iz lastnih imen. In this case, you need to pay attention to the gender of the owner and the gender of the thing that is owned.

For masculine name, you add -ov + the corresponding ending in red.
For feminine name, you add -in and the corresponding ending in red.

JAN (Jan’s)JANA (Jana’s)
Janov_*brat (brother)Janin_
Janova*sestra (sister)Janina
Janovo*kolo (bicycle)Janino
Reminder* is the famous bracket (cčšž, j) where the o changes into e.

For example,

  • Peter je Nikov dedek (Peter is Nik’s grandfather).
  • Mirina hiša je najlepša (Mira’s house is the prettiest).
  • Domnovo kolo je modro (Domen’s bicycle is blue).

Bonus: here are some exceptions:

  • Peter – Petrov (Peter’s)
  • Babica – Babičin (Grandmother’s)
  • Oče – Očetov (Father’s)
  • Stric – Stričev (Uncle’s)

Expressing possession or ownership might seem confusing at first, mainly because there are “many of them”. My suggestion is to keep it simple. First, remember the “basic forms” then the rest will come naturally because they are declined as nouns and follows the general table of endings. Do keep in mind that all elements have to match (subject, gender, grammatical numbers)! If you have any questions, don’t hesitate and let me know!

Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.