Third Sklon – Dative

The Slovene grammar is divided into 6 grammatical cases known as skloni. Understanding when to use which will greatly help you improve your Slovene.

Last but not least – the third sklon. Although, before attacking it, I suggest that you be familiar with the First Sklon – Nominative, Fourth Sklon – AccusativeSecond Sklon – GenitiveFifth Sklon – Locative and Sixth Sklon – Instrumental.

Third Sklon – Dative

The third sklon, also known as dajalnik or dativ in Slovene, is the “Dative” case.

Here’s the table for the Sklon 3, Dative (I give…)

SKLON 3  (m) PRIDEN_ PES_ (ž) SIVA MAČKA (s) VELIKO LETALO
(E) Dam novemu psu sivi mački velikemu letalu
(D) Dam novima psoma sivima mačkama velikima letaloma
(M) Dam novim psom sivim mačkam velikim letalom
Reminder:  (E) ednina/singular, (D) dvojina/dual, (M) množina/plural and (m) moški/masculine, (ž) ženski/feminine, (s) srednji/neutral.

As you can see, in Dative, many endings are the same or similar. Refer to the colors:

  • the masculine form and neutral form are exactly the same,
  • the dual masculine, feminine and neutral form all ends with an a,
  • the plural masculine, feminine and neutral form all ends with i and
  • the dual and plural feminine form differs from the masculine/neutral forms by an a.

❤ And here’s an simplified version of the endings, easier to remember :

SKLON 3 (m) (ž) (s)
(E) EMU –U -I -I EMUU
(D) –IMA –OMA* –IMAAMA –IMA –OMA*
(M) –IM –OM* –IMAM –IM –OM*
Reminder: * is the famous bracket (c, č, š, ž j) where the o changes into e.

When to use the third sklon

  1. the noun is indirectly affected by the verb
    For example, I give (what?)4 a book (to who?)3 to a friend  Dam (kaj?) knjigo4 (komu?) prijatelju3.
  2. following specific preposition
    • k/h (to) – when there is movement or direction, which is similar to the fourth sklon, but the destination is a person. | i.e. I go to the doctor → Grem k zdravniku3.
      The preposition h is used if the following word starts with K or G.

      The rest uses k.
    • proti (toward/against) | i.e. I go toward the seaGrem proti morju3 / I am against smoking → Sem proti kajenju3.
    • kljub (despite) | Despite the rain, I go to school → Kljub dežju3 grem v šolo4.
  3.  following specific verb
    • pomagati (to help), telefonirati (to phone)smejati se (to laugh), obljubiti (to promise)čestitati (to congratulate), zaupati (to trust)…
      Some verbs can be used with the fourth or/and the third sklon, it always depends on the context (direct or indirect).

If you’ve made it this far, congratulations! 🙂 The third sklon is not any less important than the others skloni, but it is the last one on my list.

Remembering all the endings, understanding all the skloni and being able to easily apply them correct will take some time, but do keep up the good work and one day, you will be able to proudly say “Slovnico imam v malem prstu”! (If you’re not sure what it means, check out Slovenian Idioms.)


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & Numerals, Slovene Nouns & Pronouns, Slovene Verbs, Slovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

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Sixth Sklon – Instrumental

Slovene has 6 grammatical cases, known as skloni – and to learn properly, it is good to know when to use which.

I suggest that you be familiar with the First Sklon – Nominative, Fourth Sklon – AccusativeSecond Sklon – Genitive and Fifth Sklon – Locative before starting the sixth sklon.

Sixth Sklon – Instrumental

The sixth sklon, also known as orodnik or instrumental in Slovene, is the “Instrumental” case. The orodnik sklon is always used with a preposition.

Here’s the table for the Sklon 6, Instrumental (I travel with…)

SKLON 6 (m) NOV_ AVTOBUS_ (ž) NOVA LADJA (s) NOVO LETALO
(E) Potujem z novim avtobusom novo ladjo novim letalom
(D) Potujem z novima avtobusoma novima ladjama novima letaloma
(M) Potujem z novimi avtobusi novimi ladjami novimi letali
Reminder:  (E) ednina/singular, (D) dvojina/dual, (M) množina/plural and (m) moški/masculine, (ž) ženski/feminine, (s) srednji/neutral.

As you can see, in Instrumental, many endings are the same or very similar. Refer to the colors:

  • the masculine form and neutral form are exactly the same,
  • the dual masculine, feminine and neutral form all ends with a,
  • the plural masculine, feminine and neutral form all ends with i and
  • the dual and plural feminine form differs from the masculine/neutral form by an a.

❤ And here’s an simplified version of the endings, easier to remember :

SKLON 6 (m) (ž) (s)
(E) IMOM* -O -O IMOM*
(D) –IMA –OMA* –IMAAMA –IMA –OMA*
(M) –IMII –IMAMI –IMII
Reminder: * is the famous bracket (c, č, š, ž j) where the o changes into e.

When to use the sixth sklon

The sixth sklon is always used with a preposition.

  1. the preposition s and z when it means with (if it means from, then it is the second sklon).
    For example, I am talking (with who/what?) with Anna → Pogovarjam se (s kom / s čim?) z Anno6. I go with bicycle → Grem s kolesom6.

    The preposition s is used before words starting with C, Č, F, H, K, P, S, ŠT and z is used for the rest.
  2. following specific preposition
    • the “cubic directions” for location: pred (in front), za (behind), nad (above), pod (below) and med (in between) | i.e. The cat is under the table → Maček je pod mizo6.
      The prepositions med (in between, during) and pred (in front, before) can be used either for location or time frame.

The use of the sixth sklon is rather simple to understand. On the other hand, remembering the table ending is more problematic as they are longer.

Be careful with the prepositions as some prepositions can be used with more than just one sklon!


Prepositions are big indicators of skloni. One trick I like to use is to underline prepositions to pinpoint them – it helps me learn which sklon is being use, then I use exponential to mark the sklon of a noun. With time and practice, such analysis became an automate and I find t very useful. Hope that trick can help you too!

Prepositions can be confusing at some point – just remember in which situations they are used. If you have any questions, comments – don’t hesitate and leave me a message!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & Numerals, Slovene Nouns & Pronouns, Slovene Verbs, Slovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

How to Say Dates and Times in Slovene – Part 2

Ways of saying dates and times in Slovene is quite versatile and precise and it can be expressed with most of the skloni, except the Third Sklon – Dative. This post is the second part of How to Say Dates and Times in Slovene – Part 1.


Koliko (How much, how many, how long)

Koliko časa2 ste bili v Sloveniji5 (How long have you been in Slovenia)?

  • I have been in Slovenia for 3 years → V Sloveniji5 sem bila tri leta4.
    Dan (day), teden (week), mesec (month) and leto (year)

Kdaj (When)

Kdaj imate rojstni dan (When do you have birthday)?

  • Rojstni dan4 imam dvanajstega aprila(a precise date).
  • Rojstni dan imam danes.
    Včeraj (yesterday), danes (today) and jutri (tomorrow).
  • Rojstni dan imam spomladi* (during a season).
    Seasons: pomlad (spring) poletje (summer), jesen (autumn) and zima (winter).

    *How to refer to “during” a season: spomladi, poleti, jeseni and pozimi.

Kdaj je odprta pisarna (When is the office open)?

  • The office is open from 9:00 to 17:00 → Pisarna je odprta od devetih2 do petih2 .
  • The office is open in the afternoon → Pisarna je odprta popoldne*.
    Times of day: dan (day), noč (night), jutro (morning), večer (evening), dopoldan (before noon) and popoldan (afternoon).

    *How to refer “during” the time of day: podnevi, ponoči, zjutraj, zvečer, dopoldne and popoldne.

Kdaj ste šli zadnjič v kino (When was the last time you went to the movie theater)?

  • Last year → Lani.
    Lani (last year), letos (this year), prihodnje/naslednje leto (next year).
  • One week ago → Pred enim tednom6.
  • Last month → Prejšnji mesec.
    Prejšnji(m) (last), ta(m/ž)/to(s) (this) and naslednji(m) (the following, next).

These are just a few examples of the endless situations where dates and times are being used.


Expressing dates and times can sometimes be quite tricky in Slovene – the more you practice, the more comfortable you will be with the concept!

For more help or any comments , don’t hesitate to contact me by writing me a private message or via the comment box! 😉


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & Numerals, Slovene Nouns & Pronouns, Slovene Verbs, Slovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

How to Say Dates and Times in Slovene – Part 1

Expressing dates and times is quite an art in Slovene as it can be used with the First Sklon – Nominative, Fourth Sklon – AccusativeSecond Sklon – GenitiveFifth Sklon – Locative and the Sixth Sklon – Instrumental. We just have to know when to use which…


Dates in Slovene can be written in different ways, but it follows this order:

DAY – MONTH  YEAR

  • 21.04.2016 or 21._4._2016 or 21.4.2016
  • 21._april 2016 or 21._aprila 2016
Please take note of the space (colored in pink) between the elements of the date.

Here are some common situations were dates and times are used with different skloni.

Koliko (How much, how many, how long)

Koliko je ura1 (What time is it / What is the time)?

  • The time is 8:00 → Ura je osem1.
  • The time is 8:30 → Ura je pol* devetih2.
    *Be careful: the adverb pol is associated with the second sklon.

Kateri (Which)

Kateri danje danes (Which day of the week is today)?

  • Today is Monday → Danes je ponedeljek1.
    Days of the week: ponedeljek (Monday), torek (Tuesday), sreda (Wednesday), četrtek (Thursday), petek (Friday), sobota (Saturday) and nedelja (Sunday).

Kateri je danes (Which date is today)?

  • Today is April 21rst → Danes je enaindvajseti april1.

    * Note that the number in date ends with –i.

    For more information: Numbers in General – Številke

    Months: januar, februar, marec, april, maj, junij, julij, avgust, september, oktober, november and december.

Kateregasmo danes (Which day are we today)?

  • We’re April 21rst → Smo enaindvajsetega aprila2.

Kdaj (When)

Kdaj imate sestanek (When do you have an appointment)?

  • Imam sestanek4 v torek4/ v sredo(once in Tuesday / Wednesday).
  • Imam sestanek4 čez eno uro4 (in one hour).
  • Imam sestanek4 ob ponedeljekih5(M) (every Monday) / ob devetih(at 9:00).
    Time follows different rules, remember: ob enih, ob dveh*, ob treh*, ob štirih, ob petih

For more situations where dates and times are needed: How to Say Dates and Times in Slovene – Part 2.


Dates and times might seem like a complex concept, but knowing how to express them properly will be gratifying at the end. It is also very useful on a daily base or for more special occasion, such as appointment or birthdays.

If you have questions or comments, you are more than welcome to contact me and I will be more than happy to reply you!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & Numerals, Slovene Nouns & Pronouns, Slovene Verbs, Slovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Fifth Sklon – Locative

The Slovene language has 6 grammatical cases – skloni. Each serves its own purpose, knowing how and when to use them is quite important when learning Slovene.

Before moving on to the fifth sklon, you should be familiar with the First Sklon – Nominative, Fourth Sklon – Accusative and Second Sklon – Genitive. They are the most commonly used cases. By knowing them well, you should be able to get by quite nicely!

But, we are perseverant learners, so let’s learn the fifth sklon!

Fifth Sklon – Locative

The fifth sklon is also known as mestnik or lokativ in Slovene and it is the “Locative” case. The mestnik sklon is always used with a preposition.

Here’s the table for the Sklon 5, Locative (I am next to…)

SKLON 5 (m) NOV_ PRIJATELJ_ (ž) NOVA PRIJATELJICA (s) NOVO LETALO
(E) Sem pri novem prijatelju novi prijateljici novem letalu
(D) Sem pri novih prijateljih novih prijateljicah novih letalih
(M) Sem pri novih prijateljih novih prijateljicah novih letalih
Reminder:  (E) ednina/singular, (D) dvojina/dual, (M) množina/plural and (m) moški/masculine, (ž) ženski/feminine, (s) srednji/neutral.

❤ And here’s an simplified version of the endings, easier to remember :

SKLON 5 (m) (ž) (s)
(E EM –U -I-I EM –U
(D IHIH IHAH IHIH
(M IH –IH IHAH IHIH

As you can see, many of the endings in Locative is the same. Refer to the colors:

  • the masculine form and neutral form are exactly the same,
  • the dual masculine/neutral form is the same as its plural form and
  • the feminine dual and plural forms are the same.

When to use the fifth sklon

The fifth sklon is always used with a preposition.

  1. the preposition v and na  when it dictates a location, without movement or direction (otherwise, it will be the Fourth sklon)
    For example, I am (where?) in school → Sem (kje?) v šoli5. I am at lunch → Sem na kosilu5.

    For more information: The prepositions v and na – Fourth Sklon.

    With city and country that ends with -ska, -ška, the ending in feminine singular isem instead of -i. For example: I’m in Croatia → Sem na Hrvaškem.
  2. following specific preposition
    • pri (next to) | i.e. I am next to (what? who?) the house / Anna → Sem pri (kom? čem?) hiši5 / Anni5(Yes, skloni apply to names as well!),
    • ob (at / by) | i.e. I have an appointment (when?) at one o’clock / every Monday → Imam sestanek4 (kdaj?) ob enih5* / ponedeljkih5(M). I am sitting by the sea → Sedim ob morju5.

      *For more information: How to Say Dates and Times in Slovene.
    • po (around / after) | i.e. I travel around the World → Potujem po svetu5. Let’s go for coffee after class →  Gremo na kavo4 po pouku5.
    • o (about) | i.e. We’re talking about the Slovenia→ Pogovarjamo se o Sloveniji5.

Luckily with the fifth sklon, this is pretty much all you need to know about it! 🙂

Although, as you noticed, in Slovene, prepositions are important indicators (and hints) of which sklon to use, but BE CAREFUL:

Some prepositions can be used with more than just one sklon!


Learning Slovene (or any language) can seem like a very big chunk at first, but the trick is to practise it as often as you can and to go step by step!

Questioning and looking for answers are also part of the learning process. So, if you have any questions, comments: don’t hesitate and contact me!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & Numerals, Slovene Nouns & Pronouns, Slovene Verbs, Slovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

When to Use the Second Sklon – Genitive

The rodilnik sklon is one of the most commonly used sklon along with the First Sklon – Nominative and the Fourth Sklon – Accusative.  As mentioned in Second Sklon – Genitive, it is used for:

  • noun that is directly affected by a negation verb,
  • following specific preposition and
  • double nouns (samostalnikX + samostalnik2).

The Second sklon is also used in other situations.


Here’s other uses of the second sklon

  1. following specific verb

    • bati se (to fear, to be afraid of) | i.e. I’m afraid of spiders Bojim se pajkov2(M).

      If the fear is in general, like spiders, the noun is in its plural form.
    • dotakniti se (to touch) | i.e. I wish to touch a rainbow Želim se dotakniti mavrice2(E).
    • veseliti se (to be glad, to look forward) | i.e. I look forward to the holidays Veselim se počitnic2(M).
    • najesti se (to appease one’s hunger) and napiti se
  2. for dates
    For example, today we are April 9th → Danes smo devetega aprila2.
  3. the noun is quantified količina
    • Koliko [samostanik]2…? (How many, how much…?)
      i.e. How much time do you have ? → Koliko časa2(E) imaš?
    • following quantifying adverbs and nouns
      Such as veliko (a lot), malo (a little), liter, škatla (box)…
      i.e. Imam veliko časa2(E) / Pijem litro4(E) vode2(E).
    •  5 and more
      As you already know, 1 is ednina, 2 is dvojina, 3 and 4 is množina and when the number is 5+, the noun is second sklon, plural form.
      i.e. To sta dve litra1(D) vina2(E)To je pet litrov2(M) vina2(E)

      With the second sklon, some categories of nouns are only used in ednina or in množina and more rules apply.

      How to Express Quantities in Slovene – Second Sklon

The second sklon can seem very complex at first, and it is a completely normal impression, but DON’T PANIC – take one small bit at the time! 🙂 Learning a new language is a long process, and it takes time and practice!

If you have any questions, feedback or need for help, don’t be shy and contact me!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & Numerals, Slovene Nouns & Pronouns, Slovene Verbs, Slovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Second Sklon – Genitive

As you already know, there are 6 grammatical cases – skloni in Slovene. Knowing how and when to apply them is primordial.

Before getting to the second sklon, you should already know the First Sklon – Nominative and the Fourth Sklon – Accusative.

If you’ve read my previous posts, you will know by now that Slovene word is masculine, feminine or neutral and it has a singular, dual and plural form. Each form can be used with all the 6 grammatical cases – so, in Slovene, every noun has 18 versions.

Second Sklon – Genitive

The second sklon is also known as rodilnik or genitiv in Slovene and it is the “Genitive” case. The rodilnik sklon is one of the most used form of the nouns along with imenovalnik and tožilnik.

Here’s the table for the Sklon 2, Genitive (I don’t have…)

SKLON 2  (m) STAR_ TELEFON_ (ž) NOVA TORBA (s) VELIKO LETALO
(E) Nimam starega telefona
starega psa
nove torbe velikega letala
vročega morja
(D) Nimam starih telefonov novih torb_ velikih letal_
(M) Nimam starih telefonov novih torb_ velikih letal_
Reminder:  (E) ednina/singular, (D) dvojina/dual, (M) množina/plural and (m) moški/masculine, (ž) ženski/feminine, (s) srednji/neutral.

As you can see, in the Genitive case, a lot of endings are the same. Refer to the colors:

  • the masculine singular is the same as the neutral singular,
  • the masculine dual and plural is the same and
  • the feminine dual and plural forms have the exact same ending as the neutral dual and plural forms.

❤ And here’s an simplified version of the endings, easier to remember :

 SKLON 2 (m) (ž) (s)
(E EGAA -E-E EGA –A
(D IHOV* IH_ IH_
(M IH –OV* IH_ IH_
Reminder: is the famous bracket (c, č, š, ž j) where the o changes into e.

When to use the second sklon

  1. the noun is directly affected by a negation verb
    For example, I don’t have (what? who?) a telephone  Nimam (česa? koga?) telefona2(E)I don’t drink coffee Ne pijem kave2(E).
  2. following specific preposition
    • iz or s/z(from) – to answer the question Od kod ste? (Where are you from?) | i.e. I’m from Canada Sem iz Kanade2 / She is from China Ona je s Kitajske2.
      The prepositions v and na – Fourth Sklon

      When we use the preposition v in the fourth sklon, we use the preposition iz in the second sklon.

      When we use the preposition na for the fourth sklon, we use the preposition s/z. (s is used if the following word starts with C, Č, F, H, K, P, S, Š and T).
    • brez(without), od… do (from… to), blizu* (near), zraven/poleg (next to, beside), nasproti (facing), mimo* (passing by), preko (across), sredi (in the middle), okoli* (around) and izmed (among all).
      * Please note that those are considered as “fake preposition” as they categorized as adverbs.
  3. the double nouns (samostalnikX + samostalnik2)
    The Slovene noun + noun is like two nouns connected with the preposition “of” in English.
    For example, let’s use school of Slovene (šolaX + slovenščina2) with different skloni:

    • Sklon 1: To je šola1 slovenščine/To ni šola1 slovenščine2
    • Sklon 4: Grem v šolo4 slovenščine2 /  Ne grem v šolo4 slovenščine2  / Imam šolo4 slovenščine2 danes.
    • Sklon 2: Nimam šole2 slovenščine2 danes.

      Notice how the first noun is used with the corresponding sklon and how the second noun is always in its second sklon form.

The second sklon is used at other occasions as well, but if you can remember and learn those written here, you’re already doing a great job! I know it’s a lot of information at once, but

Vaja dela mojstra – Practice makes perfect.

If you are up to learn more uses of the second sklon, you can check When to use the Second Sklon – Genitive.


I remember how confused while learning the first, fourth and second sklon. Therefore, if you are currently feeling confused, overwhelmed and/or completely lost – don’t worry, it is absolutely normal and part of the learning (and trust me, it will get better!).

If you have any questions, because you might have: don’t be shy and contact me for help! If you have any other learning tricks, please do share with me – we are all learners!

Knowing the first, fourth and second sklon  (which are the most commonly used ones) – you already know half (50%!) of the 6 Slovene grammatical cases! Woohoo! 😀


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & Numerals, Slovene Nouns & Pronouns, Slovene Verbs, Slovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Don’t give up, let’s learn,
Anna.

The prepositions v and na – Fourth Sklon

One of the use of the Fourth Sklon – Accusative as I’ve explained before is with the prepositions v and na, which are prepositions used with movement and direction verbs such as iti (to go) or teči (to run).

The biggest problem is to discern when to use v and when to use na.

The preposition v can be translated as “in” – it’s usually used with:

  • zgradba – structure “that has walls” such as šola (school), trgovina (shop), knjižnica (library)…
  • mesto – town and city such as Piran, Ljubljana, Novo Mesto
  • država – most of countries such as Kanada, Slovenija…
    There are a few exceptions: gledališče (theater), park, živalski vrt (zoo), opera, služba (work), gore (mountains)…

The preposition na can be translated as “on” – it’s usually used with:

  • zunaj – outside structure “without walls” such as tržnica (marketplace), balkon
  • aktivnost – activity such as piknik, zabavo (party), ekskurzija (excursion)…
  • šport – sport such as tenis, tek (jogging), smučanje (skiing)…
  • hrana, pijača – food and drinks such as malica (snack), kava (coffee), pijača (drink), kosilo (lunch)…
  • formalna institucija – official building such as banka (bank), ambasada (embassy), sodišče (court)…
  • otok – island such as Bled, Havaji…
  • city and country that ends with -ska, -ška such as Japonska (Japan), Madžarska (Hungary)…
  • location that ends with -išče such as letališče (airport), igrišče (playground)…
    There are a few exceptions: postaja (bed), bazen (pool), morje (sea), Triglav, Dunaj (Vienna)…

There are more exceptions, but knowing those mentioned above will surely impress more than one ; ) !


Learning the prepositions properly is very important as they are indicators of sklon – meaning, if you known which preposition is usually or always used with which sklon, then you will know which sklon to use.

For those who are more “advanced” in their studies, the preposition v and na are also used with the Fifth Sklon – Locative, the rules of when to use which are exactly the same.

If you have any questions, please contact me and I will try my best to answer you!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & Numerals, Slovene Nouns & Pronouns, Slovene Verbs, Slovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Fourth Sklon – Accusative

Slovene is a very specific language, its grammar is categorized into 6 grammatical cases – skloni. Knowing when and how to use the skloni is very important when learning Slovene.

Before learning the fourth sklon, you should be very familiar with the First Sklon – Nominative.

As you already known from my previous post, Slovene word is masculine, feminine or neutral and it has a singular, dual and plural form – each form can be used with 6 grammatical cases, giving a total of 18 versions of one simple word 🙂 but don’t panic, one step at the time.

Fourth Sklon – Accusative

The fourth sklon is also known as tožilnik or akuzativ in Slovene and it is the “Accusative” case. The tožilnik sklon is one of the most commonly used form of the nouns.

If you known the table for the Sklon 1, learning the Sklon 4 will be very easy. Pay attention to the text in blue.

Here’s the table for the Sklon 1, Nominative (this is/ these are…)

SKLON 1  (m) STAR_ TELEFON_ (ž) NOVA TORBA (s) VELIKO LETALO
(E) To je star_ telefon_
star
_ pes
nova torba veliko letalo
vroče morje
(D) To sta stara telefona novi torbi veliki letali
(M) To so stari telefoni nove torbe velika letala

And here’s the table for Sklon 4, Accusative (I have…)

 SKLON 4  (m) STAR_ TELEFON_ (ž) NOVA TORBA (s) VELIKO LETALO
(E) Imam star_ telefon_
starega psa
novo torbo veliko letalo
vroče morje
(D) Imam stara telefona novi torbi veliki letali
(M) Imam stare telefone nove torbe velika letala
Reminder:  (E) ednina/singular, (D) dvojina/dual, (M) množina/plural and (m) moški/masculine, (ž) ženski/feminine, (s) srednji/neutral.

As you can see, most of the endings in the Accusative case are the same as the Nominative case – only three endings are different.

❤ A simplified version of the ending:

 SKLON 1 (m) (ž) (s)
(E -Ø -Ø
ØØ 
A –A -O/E* -O/E
(D -A -A -I -I -I -I
(M I –I -E -E -A -A

and

 SKLON 4 (m) (ž) (s)
(E -Ø -Ø
EGA
OO -O/E* -O/E
(D -A -A -I -I -I -I
(M EE -E -E -A -A
Reminder: is the famous bracket (c, č, š, ž j) where the o changes into e.

If we compare the endings in the two cases:

  • the singular masculine form for thing such as telefon (a telephone) remains the same BUT when we refer to a singular masculine form that is alive (with a heart ❤ ) such as pes (a dog), the ending is –ega and –a,

    ∴ singular masculine that has a beating ❤ :  –Ø Ø → –EGA A
  • the plural masculine form: II → EE and
  • the singular feminine form: A→ –OO.

To je kava1(this is coffee) → Pijem kavo4(I drink coffee).


When to use the fourth sklon

  1. the noun is directly affected by the verb
    For example, I have (what? who?) a telephone/ dog Imam (kaj? koga?) telefon4 / psa4.

    ∴ nouns in fourth sklon is used with most of verbs such as jesti (to eat), imeti (to have), kupiti (to buy), kuhati (to cook), brati (to read)…
  2. the double verbs phrase imeti + rad_ […]→ I would like to have […]
    For example, I would like to have a coffee → Rad_ imam kavo4.
  3. there is movement or direction with the preposition: v  and na.
    For example, I go (where?) to schoolGrem (kam?) v šolo4. I go (where?) on a trip Grem (kam?) na izlet4.

    For more information: The prepositions v and na – Fourth Sklon.
    ∴ verbs that have a direction to a place such as hoditi (to walk), voziti (to drive), iti (to go), priti (to come), teči (to run)
  4. following specific preposition
    • za (for) | i.e. I have a (what?) gift for (who?) Anna → Imam (kaj?) darilo4 za (koga?) Anno4. (Yes, skloni apply to names as well!),
    • skozi(through), čez (across) and
    • the “cubic directions” for direction: pred (in front), za (behind), nad (above), pod (below) and med (in between).

There are more, but if you know how and when to use the Nominative and Accusative cases, even in a basic way, you are off for a great start!


During my Slovene classes, one of my favorite and personal trick was to put the number of the corresponding sklon in  superscript  next to every noun – doing so helped me identify and pinpoint which sklon was used and why. After awhile, it became an “automate” respond from my brain, which made learning Slovene much easier! If you decide to use my trick, I hope it helps you as much as it helped me!

The Accusative case can be very difficult at first, so if you have any questions, don’t hesitate and contact me – I’m here to help you.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & Numerals, Slovene Nouns & Pronouns, Slovene Verbs, Slovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

First Sklon – Nominative

Slovene grammar is  divided into 6 grammatical cases – called  skloni. Depending on the situation, you will use a specific sklon. Each sklon has its own ending for the masculine, feminine and neutral form (if you’re not sure what’s that about, check How to Determine the Gender of a Noun in Slovene) as well as the singular, dual and plural form. So, with some calculations, one noun can be written in 18 different ways.

DON’T PANIC!

It may seems a lot at first, but once you understand how it works, it’s not that difficult!

First Sklon – Nominative

The first sklon is also known as imenovalnik in Slovene and it is the “Nominative” case. The imenovalnik sklon is the “original” form of the noun, meaning, the form you will find in the dictionary.

In Slovene, everything has to match: the adjective, the noun (subject) as well as the conjugation of the verb.

Here’s an table with an example of an adjective with its noun:

 SKLON 1  (m) STAR_ TELEFON_ (ž) NOVA TORBA (s) VELIKO LETALO
(E) To je star_ telefon_ nova torba veliko letalo
vroče morje
(D) To sta stara telefona novi torbi veliki letali
(M) To so stari telefoni nove torbe velika letala
Reminder:  (E) ednina/singular, (D) dvojina/dual, (M) množina/plural and (m) moški/masculine, (ž) ženski/feminine, (s) srednji/neutral.

❤ A simplified version of the ending that you need to remember:

 SKLON 1 (m) (ž) (s)
(E -Ø -Ø -A -A -O/E* -O/E
(D -A -A -I -I -I -I
(M -I -I -E -E -A -A
Reminder: is the famous bracket (c, č, š, ž, j) where the o changes into e.

As you can see,

  • the ending of the dual masculine form (marked in blue) is the same as the plural neutral form and
  • the ending of the plural masculine form (marked in orange) is the same as the dual neutral form.

Once you’ve learn the ending of the first sklon, all you need to know is when to apply it.

When to use the first sklon

  1. the noun is the subject.
    For example, the telephone is blue → telefon je moder.
  2. the noun is used with specific “pre-made” phrases:
    • všeč mi je […]  I like […] | i.e. všeč mi je čokolada (I like chocolate),
    • boli me […] […] hurts me and
    • zanima me […] […] interest me.
  3.  the noun is used with specific verbs:
    • biti (to be) with its positive and negative form | i.e. to je/ni torba (this is/is not a bag),
    • postati (to become), ostati (to remain) and imenovati (to name).

There are more, but knowing those above is already a great start!


Learning a new language is sometimes challenging but it should be fun at the same time  🙂 – we all have to start somewhere and memorizing the first sklon is not only a good start but also a needed step to properly learn Slovene!

If you have any questions or more tricks you would like to share, please leave me a comment and I will get back at you – we are all here to refine our Slovene!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & Numerals, Slovene Nouns & Pronouns, Slovene Verbs, Slovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.