Slovene Nouns to Adjectives – Vrstni Pridevnik

As we know, adjectives are used to describe or modify how a noun is. There are also different types of adjectives in Slovene, but they can’t be directly translated into English:

  • lastnostni (kakovostni) pridevnik (characteristic or qualitative adjective),
  • svojilni pridevnik (possessive adjective) and
  • vrstni pridevnik (“kind” adjective).

Lastnostni pridevniki or kakovostni pridevniki are descriptive adjectives. They are used to describe specific characteristic that are proper to the noun (color, size, age, shape) and answer the question kakšen (how is). For example,

  • Vozim hiter avto4. (I drive a fast car).
  • To je velika hiša1 (This is a big house).
  • Kopali smo se v toplem morju5 (We swam in the warm sea).

As you can see, the adjective always follows the declension of the noun.

To learn more about declension of adjective, read Slovene Adjectives in General.

Svojilni pridevniki are possessive adjectives used to describe the ownership of the noun. They answer the question čigav (whose). For example,

  • Tim vozi Markov traktor4 (Tim is driving Mark’s tractor).
  • Mira je Janina sestra1 (Mira is Jana’s sister).
  • Ne maram sosedovega psa2(I don’t like the neighbor’s dog).

As you can see, -ov + the corresponding ending is added to masculine nouns, while -in + the corresponding ending is added to feminine nouns.

Please note that possessive adjectives are different from possessive pronouns. Learn more here.

Vrstni pridevniki are adjectives “made from nouns”. They are also used to describe a noun, but specifically the “type”, “kind” or ”category”, which answer the question “kateri” (which). The adjective’s endings can be put into groups, but unfortunately without any patterns.

Adjectives ending with -ni

  • turist (tourist) – turistični mesto (touristic town)
  • jagoda (strawberry) – jagodna marmelada (strawberry jam)
  • mesto (town) – mestni avtobus (city bus)
  • čokolada (chocolate) – čokoladna torta (chocolate cake)

Adjectives ending with –ski or –ški

  • morje (sea) – morski sadeži (seafood)
  • Slovenija (Slovenia) – slovenska zastava (Slovenian flag)
  • nedelja (Sunday) – nedeljsko kosilo (Sunday lunch)
  • otrok (child) – otroško igrišče (children playground)

Adjectives ending with -ov

  • oreh (walnut) – orehova potica (walnut potica)
  • borovnica (blueberry) – borovničev sok (blueberry juice)
  • sir (cheese) – sirov zavitek (cheese strudel)
  • kokos (coconut) – kokosovo mleko (coconut milk)

Adjectives ending with -nji

  • jutro (morning) – jutranje vaje (morning exercises)
  • noter (interior) – notranji bazen (inside pool)
  • jutri (tomorrow) – jutrišnji dan (tomorrow day)
  • blizu (near) – bližnji vzhod (nearby exit)

Adjectives ending with -ji

  • pes (dog) – pasji frizer (dog groomer)
  • maček (cat) – mačja trava (catnip)
  • medved (bear) – medvedja šapa (bear paw)
The difference between lastnostni pridevnik and vrstni pridevnik is the question that they answer. Lastnostni pridevnik is used for description of shape, color, size and age, while vrstni pridevnik is used to describe the type or kind.
——-
Tim potuje po Sloveniji z novim modrim električnim avtom6 (Tim travels around Slovenia with a new blue electric car).
Dalia ne mara svežega kozjega mleka2 (Dalia doesn’t like fresh goat milk).
Martin rad je slastno mehiško hrano4 (Martin likes to eat delicious Mexican food).

Knowing that some adjectives can be made from noun is a fun and useful way to learn Slovene. It’s like killing two birds with one stone! With adjectives, no matter which type, do remember that the declension is the same as the noun. If you have any questions, comments or adjectives that you would like to add, please let me know!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.

Comparative and Superlative Adjectives in Slovene

Same as in English, adjectives in Slovene are comparable, known as stropnjevanje pridevnika, they are ranked by “level”.  Comparative and superlative adjectives are often used to answer questions starting by kakšen.

Learn more about Adjectives in General.

Not sure how to use kakšen? Read about Which Slovene Question Words to Use.

How to recognize them

In Slovene, comparative and superlative adjectives are easily recognizable.

For example, the adjective lep (pretty) is trostopenjsko stopnjevanje – three-level adjective.

  1. Its basic form– osnovnik is simply the adjective, lep (pretty).
  2. Its comparative formprimernik is lepši (prettier).
  3. Its superlative formpresežnik is najlepši (prettiest).

The comparative form is usually:  part of the basic form + the ending –ši / –ejši / – ji.
The superlative form is: naj + its comparative form.


Comparative form

As mentioned earlier, the comparative form is usually part of the basic form with different endings. The question is, how to remember which ending goes with which adjective. Here’s an easy way to guide you through.

Ending with -ši
Comparative form ending with -ši are usually used with short adjective, such as:

  • lep (lepši) – pretty,
  • grd (grši) – ugly,
  • slab (slabši) – bad,
  • hud (hujši) – mean,
  • dolg (daljši) – long,
  • mlad (mlajši) – young.

But there are some longer adjectives that also end with -ši. For example: dober (boljši) – good, majhen (manjši) – small, kratek (krajši) – short…

Ending with -ejši
Comparative form ending with –ejši are mostly used with adjectives that have lots of consonants at the end, such as:

  • čist (čistejši) – clean,
  • močen (močnejši) – strong,
  • hiter (hitrejši) – fast,
  • topel (toplejši) – warm,
  • hladen (hladnejši) – cold.
Notice how the e” in the basic adjective is underlined, it means that when declined, the “e” is removed ∴ it ends up with a lot of consonant together.

Some adjectives also take the -ejši ending, even if they don’t have many consonants together. For example: nov (novejši) – new, star (starejši) – old, poceni (cenejši) – cheap…

Ending with -ji
Comparative form ending with ji are irregular, meaning they don’t follow any pattern. They can be short adjectives, adjectives with many consonants…).

  • lahek (lažji) – easy / light,
  • težek (težji) – difficult / heavy,
  • drag (dražji) – expensive,
  • visok (višji) – tall / high,
  • nižek (nižji) – short / low,
  • ozek (ji) – narrow,
  • globok (globlji) – deep.

You have to learn them by ❤ , but the more you use and hear them, the easier it will be to remember them.

With bolj (more) or manj (less)
Comparative form with bolj (more) or manj (less) are used when endings -ši, -ejši or -ji don’t apply. Usually with longer adjectives, colors and status or conditions.

  • utrujen – tired,
  • svež – fresh,
  • zelen – green,
  • sončen – sunny,
  • suh – skinny / dry,
  • vroč – hot,
  • mrzel – cold.

Of course, sometimes you might forget or won’t know how to say a certain comparative adjective and as a last resort, you can use it with bolj or manj. For example, bolj lep (more pretty), manj lahek (less easy)…


Superlative Form

Once you know the comparative form, the superlative form is very easy. You simply put naj in front of its comparative form and you get its superlative form.

  • lep (pretty) → lepši najlepši,
  • čist (clean) → čistejši → najčistejši,
  • lahek (easy / light) → lažji najlažji,
  • utrujen (tired) → bolj / manj utrujen  → najbolj / najmanj utrujen.

Keep in mind that there are no “absolute” rules with comparative and superlative adjectives. Therefore, the more you practice, the more you will be familiar with them.

If you have any comments or questions, contact me and let me know! We’re all here to learn Slovene!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Slovene Adjectives in General

An important and interesting part of any language is indeed adjective – pridevnik. Knowing how to use correctly adjective will greatly expand your ability to describe and express words, things, but mainly nouns.

As we known, nouns in Slovene can be masculine, feminine or neutral and singular, dual or plural. They are also affected by grammatical cases, known as skloni. Adjective takes the same form as the noun that it describes.

Slovene Adjective in Masculine Form

In my opinion, it is best to first learn the masculine form of an adjective and noun, as it is the “original” form that you might find in the dictionary. And you might notice that it has different endings:

Endings with –ER, –EK, –EN, –EL
Adjectives that end with those particular endings such as hiter (fast), lahek (light/easy), močen (strong), topel (warm) can be tricky to learn. Notice how the “e” is underlined, it means that when declined, the “e” is removed. For example:

  • hiter avtom > hitra ladjaž  > hitro letalos
  • lahek stol> lahka mizaž  > lahko kolos
  • močen veter> močna kavaž  > močno sonces
  • topel čaj> topla vodaž  > toplo vremes

❗ BUT it is not always the case. There are some exceptions.

With exceptions, the “e” remains and only the appropriate ending is added:

  • utrujen (tired) | Davidm je utrujen, Anjaž je utrujena.
  • debel (fat/thick) | Slonm je debel, Kravaž je debela.
  • zelen (green) | Avtom je zelen, majicaž je zelena.

Other endings
For adjectives that have other endings, such as slab (bad), mlad (young), visok (tall), velik (big), vroč (hot) and much more, to decline, we simply add the appropriate ending. For example:

  • slab tedenm > slaba mizaž  > slabo vremes
  • visok avtom > visoka policaž  > visoko drevos
  • vroč čajm > vroča juhaž  > vroče vinos.
Reminder: (m) moški/masculine, (ž) ženski/feminine, (s) srednji/neutral. Learn more about How to Determine the Gender of a Noun in Slovene.

I hope I didn’t confused you too much. Keep in mind that adjectives in Slovene can be used in masculine, feminine, neutral, singular, dual and plural form as well as with any of the six grammatical cases.

If you have any questions or comments, don’t hesitate and contact me!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.