Nouns – Second Feminine Declension, Part 3

In general, feminine nouns in Slovene end with -a, but there are some exceptions. Feminine nouns ending with –ev use the first feminine declension. Second feminine declension – druga ženska sklanjatev, is divided into three sub-groups:

Second Feminine Declension, short nouns

Some short nouns, such as luč (light), noč (night), sol (salt), pot (path) are feminine. There are no pattern or specific endings, so you need to learn them.

If you know the “second-second” feminine declension with ending with -en/-em/el then learning the “third-second” should be fairly easy. Pay attention to the text in color.

Here’s the table of Skloni with feminine noun ending with –en/-em/el:

2.2  ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 lepa pesem lepi pesmi lepe pesmi
 SKLON 2 lepe pesmi lepih pesmi lepih pesmi
 SKLON 3 lepi pesmi lepima pesmima lepim pesmim
 SKLON 4 lepo pesem lepi pesmi lepe pesmi
 SKLON 5 lepi pesmi lepih pesmih lepih pesmih
 SKLON 6 lepo pesmijo lepima pesmima lepimi pesmimi

Here’s the table of Skloni with short feminine noun :

2.3  ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 hitra pot hitri poti hitre poti
 SKLON 2 hitre poti hitrih poti hitrih poti
 SKLON 3 hitri poti hitrima potema hitrim potem
 SKLON 4 hitro pot hitri poti hitre poti
 SKLON 5 hitri poti hitrih poteh hitrih poteh
 SKLON 6 hitro potjo hitrima potema hitrimi potmi

❤ A simplified version of the ending:

 2.2 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -Ø -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 2 -E -I -IH -I -IH -I
 SKLON 3  -I -I -IMA –IMA -IM –IM
 SKLON 4 -O -Ø -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 5 -I – I -IH -IH -IH –IH
 SKLON 6 -O –IJO -IMA –IMA -IMI –IMI

and

 2.3 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -Ø -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 2 -E -I -IH -I -IH -I
 SKLON 3  -I -I -IMA –EMA -IM –EM
 SKLON 4 -O -Ø -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 5 -I – I -IH -IH -IH –EH
 SKLON 6 -O –JO -IMA –EMA -IMI –MI

If we compare the two tables:

  • the dual and plural form in third and sixth case, the –I becomes –E and
  • the singular and plural form in sixth case, the –I is removed.

The declension of adjectives remain the same as in “normal” declension.


There is no specific ending for short feminine nouns that are declined by the “third-second” feminine declension, so here is a short list:

dlan (palm), jed (dish, meal), klet (cellar, basement), klop (bench), kost (bone), kri (blood), moč (strength), peč (stove), pomoč (help), prst (finger), skrb (care, worry), smer (direction), smet (garbage), stran (side, page), stvar (thing), utež (weigth), vas (village)…


Feminine declensions can be quite overwhelming at first, that’s why you need to learn them step by step and always start with what you already know. If you have any questions or comments – be sure to let me know – parenthood keeps me busy but I will try to reply as soon as possible 🙂

Update – here is my Cheat sheet “Table of First and Second Feminine Declension“. More can be found under Learning Materials.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

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Colloquial Slovene – Vocabulary

At school or in books, standard Slovene – knjižna slovenščina is taught with the proper grammar and vocabulary. This literary version of the language is found in newspapers, on TV and such. On the other hand, colloquial Slovene – neknjižna slovenščina, is used in familiar and informal conversation or online chat. Sometimes, you will notice that it sounds like it was borrowed from another language, such as German or English.

I noticed that while chit-chatting with my in-laws, family, neighbors, friends, family in Slovenia, they used some words, po domače (at home), that I wouldn’t understand right away. Now I’m using them everyday.


Cuk’r
means sladkor (sugar) | i.e. Cuk’r mi je padel (My sugar is dropping).

Friš’n
means svež (fresh) | i.e. Vsak dan jem friš’n kruh (Everyday I eat fresh bread).

Cajt
means čas (time) | i.e. A ‘maš cajt (Do you have time)?

Fajn
means lepo (nice, pretty) | i.e. Fajn se ‘mejte (Have a good day).

Jest
means jaz (I) i.e. Jest ne jem torte (I do not eat cake).

Južna
means obrok (meal) | i.e. Južna je že na mizi (The meal is already on the table).

Laufat
means teči (to run) | i.e.  Pes laufa zunaj (The dog is running outside).

Kofe
means kava (coffee) | i.e. Kdo bo kofe (Who will have a coffee)?

Merkati
means paziti (to look after) | i.e. A lahko merkaš Nino za pet minut (Can you look after Nina for 5 minutes)?

Deka
means volnena odeja (woolen blanket) | i.e. Spim brez deke (I sleep without blanket).

Glih
means ravno (just, exactly) | i.e. Sem glih prišla domov (I just came home).

Žleht
means hudoben (malicious, wicked, naughty) | i.e.  Ona ima žleht jezik (She has a wicked tongue).

Štala
means hlev (stall) | i.e. Krave so v štali (The cows are in the stall).

Nucati
means potrebovati, rabiti (to need) | i.e. Kaj nucaš (What do you need)?

Župa
means juha (soup) | i.e. Danes sem jedla govejo župo (Today I ate beef soup).

Uštimati se
means urediti se (to arrange yourself) | i.e. Za zmenek se bom lepo uštimala (For my date I will arrange myself prettily).

Zmartran
means utrujen (tired) | i.e. Danes sem zmartrana (Today I am tired).

Šporget
means štedilnik na trda goriva (wood-burning stove) | i.e. Doma imamo šporget  (We have a wood-burning stove at home).

Gužva
means gneča (terrible crowd) | i.e.  Na sejemu je bila gužva (There was a terrible crowd at the fair).


Added by readers 🙂

flaša”steklenica (bottle); šalca”skodelica (cup); štenge”stopnice (stairs); rampe”zapornice (railway gate); lojtra” – lestev (ladder), šajtrga”samokolnica (wheelbarrow)


This is just a short list, I’m sure that there are a lot more po domače words.If you can think of any, please let me (and others) know via comments! Knowing about them (and integrating them) is an excellent way to converse informally with Slovenians! But do keep in mind about the standard Slovene as well.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Homonyms in Slovene

Just like English or any language, Slovene also has some homonyms, enakozvožnice – words with same spelling or pronunciation but different meaning. It can be quite tricky and confusing at the beginning, especially when trying to expand your vocabulary, but if you think it that way: it’s like to kill two (or more) birds with one stone!


Kot
1. corner, angle | i.e. Stol je v kotu(The chair is at the corner).
2. like | i.e. Tiha kot miš (Quiet like a mouse).

Jezik
1. language | i.e. Koliko jezikov2 govorite (How many languages do you speak)?
2. tongue | i.e. Kača ima dolg jezik4 (Snake has long tongue).
It is the similar in French.

Klop
1. bench | i.e. Sedim na klopi5 (I’m sittng on the bench).
2. tick | i.e. Pazi se klopov2 (Beware of ticks)!

Metuljček
1. little butterfly | i.e. Vidim lepe metuljčke4 (I see pretty little butterflies).
2. bowtie | i.e. Janez nosi metuljček4 vsak dan (Janez wears a bowtie everyday).

“Je”
1. is | i.e. Žan je prijazen (Žan is nice).
2. eats | i.e. Marko je pico4 (Marko eats pizza).
It is written the same, but the pronunciation is different

Čelo
1. forehead | i.e. Ema ima buško4 na čelu5 (Ema has a bump on her forehead).
2. violoncello | i.e. Anita igra čelo4 (Anita plays violoncello).

Tečaj
1. course | i.e. Grem na tečaj4 slovenščine2 v Ljubljani5 (I go to Slovene course in Ljubljana).
2. exchange rate | Banka ima menjalniški tečaj4 (The bank has exchange rate).
3. pole | i.e. Božiček živi na severnem tečaju5 (Santa Claus lives in North Pole).


Added by readers 🙂

Kopati – 1. to bathe 2. to dig
Hotel 
-1. the building 2. masculine and singular participle for past and future tense.


These  are just a few examples of Slovene homonyms that I can think of at the moment. I am certain that there are way more – if you can think of any, share them with me in comments and I will add them!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Nouns – Second Feminine Declension, Part 2

In Slovene, feminine nouns usually end with -a, but some have a different endings and declensions. First feminine declension is used with nouns ending with -ev. The second feminine declension is divided into three sub-groups:

  • 2.1 Feminine declension: nouns ending with –ost,
  • 2.2 Feminine declension: some nouns ending with –en/em/el,
  • 2.3 Feminine declension: some short nouns.

Second Feminine Declension, endings withen/em/el

Nouns that end with –en/em/eare feminine. For example, ljubezen (love), pesem (song) and misel (thought) are all beautiful nouns and thus feminine 😛

Be careful not to confuse with adjectives that end with er/ek/en/el as they are masculine. More information can be found here: Slovene Adjectives in General.

Also, notice how the “e” is underlined, it means that when declined, the e” is removed.

If you know the “first-second” feminine declension with -ost, then learning the “second-second” feminine declension with -en/-em/el should be fairly easy. Pay attention to the text in red.

Here’s the table of Skloni with feminine noun ending with –ost:

2.1 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 lepa starost lepi starosti lepe starosti
 SKLON 2 lepe starosti lepih starosti lepih starosti
 SKLON 3 lepi starosti lepima starost(i)ma lepim starostim
 SKLON 4 lepo starost lepi starosti lepe starosti
 SKLON 5 lepi starosti lepih starostih lepih starostih
 SKLON 6 lepo starostjo lepima starost(i)ma lepimi starostmi

Here’s the table of Skloni with feminine noun ending with –en/-em/el:

2.2  ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 hitra misel hitri misli hitre misli
 SKLON 2 hitre misli hitrih misli hitrih misli
 SKLON 3 hitri misli hitrima mislima hitrim mislim
 SKLON 4 hitro misel hitri misli hitre misli
 SKLON 5 hitri misli hitrih mislih hitrih mislih
 SKLON 6 hitro mislijo hitrima mislima hitrimi mislimi

❤ A simplified version of the ending:

 2.1 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -OST -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 2 -E -I -IH -I -IH -I
 SKLON 3  -I -I -IMA –(I)MA -IM -IM
 SKLON 4 -O -OST -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 5 -I -I -IH -IH -IH -IH
 SKLON 6 -O –JO -IMA –(I)MA -IMI –MI

and

 2.2 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -EL -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 2 -E -I -IH -I -IH -I
 SKLON 3  -I -I -IMA –IMA -IM -IM
 SKLON 4 -O -EL -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 5 -I – I -IH -IH -IH -IH
 SKLON 6 -O –IJO -IMA –IMA -IMI –IMI

If we compare the two tables, you will see that it is very similar, except at four places, where an –I is added:

  • the singular form in sixth case has an “extra” –I infront of the –JO, remains the same as its original form,
  • the dual form in third and sixth case has an “extra” –I infront of –MA, 
  • the plural form in sixth case also has an “extra” –I infront of –MI (which is the same as in normal feminine declension ending with -a).

The declension of adjectives doesn’t change and it remains the same as in “normal” feminine declension.


Second feminine declension is divided into three groups, and it can feel quite overwhelming – do not panic (or give up). In my opinion, just knowing that there are different groups and endings is already a big achievement. With practice and determination, you will learn to use them correctly.

If you have any questions or comments, just leave me a message and I will try to get back at you as soon as I can!

Update – here is my Cheat sheet “Table of First and Second Feminine Declension“. More can be found under Learning Materials.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Nouns – Second Feminine Declension, Part 1

As mentioned in a previous post, Slovene feminine nouns are recognized with their ending -a, although, some feminine nouns have different endings. Such as -ev, which are declined with the first feminine declension.  The second feminine declension, known as druga ženska sklanjatev, are for feminine nouns that end with ost, some –en/em/el and some short nouns.

Second feminine declension will be divided into three parts:

Second Female Declension, endings with -ost

Nouns that end with ost, such as kakovost (quality), starost (age), možnost (possibility) are feminine.

If you know the female declension of nouns ending with -a, learning the “first-second” feminine declension ending with -ost should be easy. Pay attention to the text in color.

Here’s the table of Skloni with feminine noun ending with –a:

 “normal” Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 dobra miza dobri mizi dobre mize
 SKLON 2 dobre mize dobrih miz_ dobrih miz_
 SKLON 3 dobri mizi dobrima mizama dobrim mizam
 SKLON 4 dobro mizo dobri mizi dobre mize
 SKLON 5 dobri mizi dobrih mizah dobrih mizah
 SKLON 6 dobro mizo dobrima mizama dobrimi mizami

Here’s the table of Skloni with feminine noun ending with –ost:

2.1 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 dobra kakovost dobri kakovosti dobre kakovosti
 SKLON 2 dobre kakovosti dobrih kakovosti dobrih kakovosti
 SKLON 3 dobri kakovosti dobrima kakovost(i)ma dobrim kakovostim
 SKLON 4 dobro kakovost dobri kakovosti dobre kakovosti
 SKLON 5 dobri kakovosti dobrih kakovostih dobrih kakovostih
 SKLON 6 dobro kakovostjo dobrima kakovost(i)ma dobrimi kakovostmi

❤ A simplified version of the ending:

 “normal” Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -A -I -I -E -E
 SKLON 2 -E -E  -IH –_ -IH –_
 SKLON 3  -I -I  -IMA –AMA -IM -AM
 SKLON 4 -O –O  -I -I -E -E
 SKLON 5 -I – I -IH -AH -IH -AH
 SKLON 6 -O –O -IMA – AMA -IMI – AMI

and

 2.1 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -OST -I –I -E –I
 SKLON 2 -E –I -IH –I -IH –I
 SKLON 3  -I –I -IMA -(I)MA -IM –IM
 SKLON 4 -O –OST -I –I -E –I
 SKLON 5 -I – I -IH –IH -IH –IH
 SKLON 6 -O –JO -IMA – (I)MA -IMI – MI

If we compare the two table, you will notice that there is basically a lot of –I with -ost nouns, except:

  • the singular form in fourth case remains the same as its original form,
  • the singular form in sixth case, instead of being just –O, it becomes –JO,
  • the dual form in third and sixth case, instead of –AMA, it becomes –(I)MA

    Dual form in third and sixth case of this group of feminine nouns can be –IMA or –MA, both endings are accepted. Although, it is good to know that on Amebis Besana (a great search engine for Slovene words) will only show the form -MA.
  • the plural form in sixth case is only –MI instead of –IMI.

The declension of adjectives doesn’t change and it remains the same as in “normal”.


Other Nouns – “Exceptions”

Beside nouns ending with –ost, there are also other nouns that fall into the 2.1. Feminine declension group. Such as:

jesen (autumn), kokoš (chicken), miš (mouse), nit (thread), obrv (eyebrow), pamet (intelligence), perut(wing), polnoč (midnight), pomlad (spring), smrt (death) zavest (consciousness), žival (animal)…


Due to exceptions, second Feminine declension can be quite challenging, but there’s no need to panic. I know some Slovenians who “have the grammar in the little finger” (Understanding Slovenian Idioms #002) that also find it difficult. If you have any comments, questions about the second feminine declension, just drop me a message or a comment!

Update – here is my Cheat sheet “Table of First and Second Feminine Declension“. More can be found under Learning Materials.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Nouns – First Feminine Declension

As we know, feminine Slovene nouns are usually identified by their -a ending, that group follows the six grammatical cases known as skloni. But some feminine nouns are known as exceptions: they have different endings and follow different declensions.

If you aren’t sure how to identify nouns gender, read: How to Determine the Gender of a Noun in Slovene.

First Female Declension, endings with –ev

Nouns that end with -ev, such as breskev (peach), cerkev (church), lestev (ladder) are feminine. They belong in the first feminine declension group known as prva ženska sklanjatev. Notice how the “e” is underlined, it means that when declined, the “e” is removed.

If you know you know the female declension of nouns ending with -a, learning the first feminine declension ending with -ev should be easy. Pay attention to the text in blue.

Here’s the table of Skloni with feminine noun ending with –a:

 “normal” Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 stara miza stari mizi stare mize
 SKLON 2 stare mize starih miz_ starih miz_
 SKLON 3 stari mizi starima mizama starim mizam
 SKLON 4 staro mizo stari mizi stare mize
 SKLON 5 stari mizi starih mizah starih mizah
 SKLON 6 staro mizo starima mizama starimi mizami

Here’s the table of Skloni with feminine noun ending with –e:

  1 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 stara breskev stari breskvi stare breskve
 SKLON 2 stare breskve starih breskev starih lestev
 SKLON 3 stari breskvi starima breskvama starim breskvam
 SKLON 4 staro breskev stari breskvi stare breskve
 SKLON 5 stari breskvi starih breskvah starih breskvah
 SKLON 6 staro breskvijo starima breskvama starimi breskvami

As you can see, most of the endings in the first female declension are almost the same as the “normal” feminine declension – only four endings are different.

❤ A simplified version of the ending:

 “normal” Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -A -I -I -E -E
 SKLON 2 -E -E  -IH –_ -IH –_
 SKLON 3  -I -I  -IMA -AMA -IM -AM
 SKLON 4 -O –O  -I -I -E -E
 SKLON 5 -I – I -IH -AH -IH -AH
 SKLON 6 -O –O -IMA – AMA -IMI – AMI

and

 1 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -EV -I -I -E -E
 SKLON 2 -E -E  -IH –EV -IH –EV
 SKLON 3  -I -I  -IMA -AMA -IM -AM
 SKLON 4 -O –EV  -I -I -E -E
 SKLON 5 -I – I -IH -AH -IH -AH
 SKLON 6 -O –IJO -IMA – AMA -IMI – AMI

If we compare the two tables:

  • the singular form in fourth case remains the same as its original form,
  • the singular form in sixth case, instead of being just –O, it becomes –IJO and
  • the dual and plural form in second case remains the same as its original form.

The declension of adjectives remain the same as in “normal” declension.


Also, an interesting fact: some feminine nouns ending with -ev derive from a verb. Such as:

  • rešitev (solution), which comes from rešiti (to solve),
  • ločitev (separation) ← ločiti (to separate),
  • prireditev (arrangement) ← prirediti (to arrange).

But please note that not all verbs have an –ev version!


Oh… since this is the first feminine declension, there is a second, third and fourth female declension – but those will be covered for another post! 🙂 If you have any comments, questions, just drop a comment or send me a message! I will try to reply as soon as I can!

On a side note, this was not even a super long or detailed post to write and it took me what seems like FOREVER! I guess with a baby that feeds on my attention, I can’t really be helped – especially now that she loves to practice her new skill: rolling!

Update – here is my Cheat sheet “Table of First and Second Feminine Declension“. More can be found under Learning Materials.


Meanwhile… discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Third Sklon – Dative

The Slovene grammar is divided into 6 grammatical cases known as skloni. Understanding when to use which will greatly help you improve your Slovene.

Last but not least – the third sklon. Although, before attacking it, I suggest that you be familiar with the First Sklon – Nominative, Fourth Sklon – AccusativeSecond Sklon – GenitiveFifth Sklon – Locative and Sixth Sklon – Instrumental.

Third Sklon – Dative

The third sklon, also known as dajalnik or dativ in Slovene, is the “Dative” case.

Here’s the table for the Sklon 3, Dative (I give…)

SKLON 3  (m) PRIDEN_ PES_ (ž) SIVA MAČKA (s) VELIKO LETALO
(E) Dam novemu psu sivi mački velikemu letalu
(D) Dam novima psoma sivima mačkama velikima letaloma
(M) Dam novim psom sivim mačkam velikim letalom
Reminder:  (E) ednina/singular, (D) dvojina/dual, (M) množina/plural and (m) moški/masculine, (ž) ženski/feminine, (s) srednji/neutral.

As you can see, in Dative, many endings are the same or similar. Refer to the colors:

  • the masculine form and neutral form are exactly the same,
  • the dual masculine, feminine and neutral form all ends with an a,
  • the plural masculine, feminine and neutral form all ends with m and
  • the dual and plural feminine form differs from the masculine/neutral forms by an a.

❤ And here’s an simplified version of the endings, easier to remember :

SKLON 3 (m) (ž) (s)
(E) EMU –U -I -I EMUU
(D) –IMA –OMA* –IMAAMA –IMA –OMA*
(M) –IM –OM* –IMAM –IM –OM*
Reminder: * is the famous bracket (c, č, š, ž j) where the o changes into e.

When to use the third sklon

  1. the noun is indirectly affected by the verb
    For example, I give (what?)4 a book (to who?)3 to a friend  Dam (kaj?) knjigo4 (komu?) prijatelju3.
  2. following specific preposition
    • k/h (to) – when there is movement or direction, which is similar to the fourth sklon, but the destination is a person. | i.e. I go to the doctor → Grem k zdravniku3.
      The preposition h is used if the following word starts with K or G.

      The rest uses k.
    • proti (toward/against) | i.e. I go toward the seaGrem proti morju3 / I am against smoking → Sem proti kajenju3.
    • kljub (despite) | Despite the rain, I go to school → Kljub dežju3 grem v šolo4.
  3.  following specific verb
    • pomagati (to help), telefonirati (to phone)smejati se (to laugh), obljubiti (to promise)čestitati (to congratulate), zaupati (to trust)…
      Some verbs can be used with the fourth or/and the third sklon, it always depends on the context (direct or indirect).

If you’ve made it this far, congratulations! 🙂 The third sklon is not any less important than the others skloni, but it is the last one on my list.

Remembering all the endings, understanding all the skloni and being able to easily apply them correct will take some time, but do keep up the good work and one day, you will be able to proudly say “Slovnico imam v malem prstu”! (If you’re not sure what it means, check out Slovenian Idioms.)

Update – here is my Cheat sheet “Table of Skloni “. More can be found under Learning Materials.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & Numerals, Slovene Nouns & Pronouns, Slovene Verbs, Slovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Sixth Sklon – Instrumental

Slovene has 6 grammatical cases, known as skloni – and to learn properly, it is good to know when to use which.

I suggest that you be familiar with the First Sklon – Nominative, Fourth Sklon – AccusativeSecond Sklon – Genitive and Fifth Sklon – Locative before starting the sixth sklon.

Sixth Sklon – Instrumental

The sixth sklon, also known as orodnik or instrumental in Slovene, is the “Instrumental” case. The orodnik sklon is always used with a preposition.

Here’s the table for the Sklon 6, Instrumental (I travel with…)

SKLON 6 (m) NOV_ AVTOBUS_ (ž) NOVA LADJA (s) NOVO LETALO
(E) Potujem z novim avtobusom novo ladjo novim letalom
(D) Potujem z novima avtobusoma novima ladjama novima letaloma
(M) Potujem z novimi avtobusi novimi ladjami novimi letali
Reminder:  (E) ednina/singular, (D) dvojina/dual, (M) množina/plural and (m) moški/masculine, (ž) ženski/feminine, (s) srednji/neutral.

As you can see, in Instrumental, many endings are the same or very similar. Refer to the colors:

  • the masculine form and neutral form are exactly the same,
  • the dual masculine, feminine and neutral form all ends with a,
  • the plural masculine, feminine and neutral form all ends with i and
  • the dual and plural feminine form differs from the masculine/neutral form by an a.

❤ And here’s an simplified version of the endings, easier to remember :

SKLON 6 (m) (ž) (s)
(E) IMOM* -O -O IMOM*
(D) –IMA –OMA* –IMAAMA –IMA –OMA*
(M) –IMII –IMAMI –IMII
Reminder: * is the famous bracket (c, č, š, ž j) where the o changes into e.

When to use the sixth sklon

The sixth sklon is always used with a preposition.

  1. the preposition s and z when it means with (if it means from, then it is the second sklon).
    For example, I am talking (with who/what?) with Anna → Pogovarjam se (s kom / s čim?) z Anno6. I go with bicycle → Grem s kolesom6.

    The preposition s is used before words starting with C, Č, F, H, K, P, S, ŠT and z is used for the rest.
  2. following specific preposition
    • the “cubic directions” for location: pred (in front), za (behind), nad (above), pod (below) and med (in between) | i.e. The cat is under the table → Maček je pod mizo6.
      The prepositions med (in between, during) and pred (in front, before) can be used either for location or time frame.

The use of the sixth sklon is rather simple to understand. On the other hand, remembering the table ending is more problematic as they are longer.

Be careful with the prepositions as some prepositions can be used with more than just one sklon!


Prepositions are big indicators of skloni. One trick I like to use is to underline prepositions to pinpoint them – it helps me learn which sklon is being use, then I use exponential to mark the sklon of a noun. With time and practice, such analysis became an automate and I find t very useful. Hope that trick can help you too!

Prepositions can be confusing at some point – just remember in which situations they are used. If you have any questions, comments – don’t hesitate and leave me a message!

Update – here is my Cheat sheet “Table of Skloni “. More can be found under Learning Materials.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & Numerals, Slovene Nouns & Pronouns, Slovene Verbs, Slovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Fifth Sklon – Locative

The Slovene language has 6 grammatical cases – skloni. Each serves its own purpose, knowing how and when to use them is quite important when learning Slovene.

Before moving on to the fifth sklon, you should be familiar with the First Sklon – Nominative, Fourth Sklon – Accusative and Second Sklon – Genitive. They are the most commonly used cases. By knowing them well, you should be able to get by quite nicely!

But, we are perseverant learners, so let’s learn the fifth sklon!

Fifth Sklon – Locative

The fifth sklon is also known as mestnik or lokativ in Slovene and it is the “Locative” case. The mestnik sklon is always used with a preposition.

Here’s the table for the Sklon 5, Locative (I am next to…)

SKLON 5 (m) NOV_ PRIJATELJ_ (ž) NOVA PRIJATELJICA (s) NOVO LETALO
(E) Sem pri novem prijatelju novi prijateljici novem letalu
(D) Sem pri novih prijateljih novih prijateljicah novih letalih
(M) Sem pri novih prijateljih novih prijateljicah novih letalih
Reminder:  (E) ednina/singular, (D) dvojina/dual, (M) množina/plural and (m) moški/masculine, (ž) ženski/feminine, (s) srednji/neutral.

❤ And here’s an simplified version of the endings, easier to remember :

SKLON 5 (m) (ž) (s)
(E EM –U -I-I EM –U
(D IHIH IHAH IHIH
(M IH –IH IHAH IHIH

As you can see, many of the endings in Locative is the same. Refer to the colors:

  • the masculine form and neutral form are exactly the same,
  • the dual masculine/neutral form is the same as its plural form and
  • the feminine dual and plural forms are the same.

When to use the fifth sklon

The fifth sklon is always used with a preposition.

  1. the preposition v and na  when it dictates a location, without movement or direction (otherwise, it will be the Fourth sklon)
    For example, I am (where?) in school → Sem (kje?) v šoli5. I am at lunch → Sem na kosilu5.

    For more information: The prepositions v and na – Fourth Sklon.

    With city and country that ends with -ska, -ška, the ending in feminine singular isem instead of -i. For example: I’m in Croatia → Sem na Hrvaškem.
  2. following specific preposition
    • pri (next to) | i.e. I am next to (what? who?) the house / Anna → Sem pri (kom? čem?) hiši5 / Anni5(Yes, skloni apply to names as well!),
    • ob (at / by) | i.e. I have an appointment (when?) at one o’clock / every Monday → Imam sestanek4 (kdaj?) ob enih5* / ponedeljkih5(M). I am sitting by the sea → Sedim ob morju5.

      *For more information: How to Say Dates and Times in Slovene.
    • po (around / after) | i.e. I travel around the World → Potujem po svetu5. Let’s go for coffee after class →  Gremo na kavo4 po pouku5.
    • o (about) | i.e. We’re talking about the Slovenia→ Pogovarjamo se o Sloveniji5.

Luckily with the fifth sklon, this is pretty much all you need to know about it! 🙂

Although, as you noticed, in Slovene, prepositions are important indicators (and hints) of which sklon to use, but BE CAREFUL:

Some prepositions can be used with more than just one sklon!


Learning Slovene (or any language) can seem like a very big chunk at first, but the trick is to practise it as often as you can and to go step by step!

Questioning and looking for answers are also part of the learning process. So, if you have any questions, comments: don’t hesitate and contact me!

Update – here is my Cheat sheet “Table of Skloni “. More can be found under Learning Materials.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & Numerals, Slovene Nouns & Pronouns, Slovene Verbs, Slovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

When to Use the Second Sklon – Genitive

The rodilnik sklon is one of the most commonly used sklon along with the First Sklon – Nominative and the Fourth Sklon – Accusative.  As mentioned in Second Sklon – Genitive, it is used for:

  • noun that is directly affected by a negation verb,
  • following specific preposition and
  • double nouns (samostalnikX + samostalnik2).

The Second sklon is also used in other situations.


Here’s other uses of the second sklon

  1. following specific verb

    • bati se (to fear, to be afraid of) | i.e. I’m afraid of spiders Bojim se pajkov2(M).

      If the fear is in general, like spiders, the noun is in its plural form.
    • dotakniti se (to touch) | i.e. I wish to touch a rainbow Želim se dotakniti mavrice2(E).
    • veseliti se (to be glad, to look forward) | i.e. I look forward to the holidays Veselim se počitnic2(M).
    • najesti se (to appease one’s hunger) and napiti se
  2. for dates
    For example, today we are April 9th → Danes smo devetega aprila2.
  3. the noun is quantified količina
    • Koliko [samostanik]2…? (How many, how much…?)
      i.e. How much time do you have ? → Koliko časa2(E) imaš?
    • following quantifying adverbs and nouns
      Such as veliko (a lot), malo (a little), liter, škatla (box)…
      i.e. Imam veliko časa2(E) / Pijem litro4(E) vode2(E).
    •  5 and more
      As you already know, 1 is ednina, 2 is dvojina, 3 and 4 is množina and when the number is 5+, the noun is second sklon, plural form.
      i.e. To sta dve litra1(D) vina2(E)To je pet litrov2(M) vina2(E)

      With the second sklon, some categories of nouns are only used in ednina or in množina and more rules apply.

      How to Express Quantities in Slovene – Second Sklon

The second sklon can seem very complex at first, and it is a completely normal impression, but DON’T PANIC – take one small bit at the time! 🙂 Learning a new language is a long process, and it takes time and practice!

If you have any questions, feedback or need for help, don’t be shy and contact me!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & Numerals, Slovene Nouns & Pronouns, Slovene Verbs, Slovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms.

Let’s learn,
Anna.