Slovene Verbs to Nouns

A fun way to enrich your vocabulary is to know how to convert Slovene verbs into nouns! It might seems a little random at first, but there are actually guidelines that can help you remember!

In general, it will be related to the verb or the noun endings.


One of the most commonly seen ending for Slovene verbs to nouns is -enje and it applies to different verb endings:

Verbs ending with -iti

  • iti se (to learn) – enje (study, learning)
  • kolesariti (to bike) – kolesarjenje* (cycling)
  • dovoliti (to allow, to permit) – dovoljenje* (permission)

Verbs ending with -eti

  • živeti (to live) – življenje (life)*
  • hiteti (to hurry) – hitenje (haste)
  • sedeti (to sit) – sedenje (seat)
  • leteti (to fly) – letenje (flight)*

Verbs ending with -sti

  • vesti (to embroider) – vezenje (embroidery)*
  • plesti (to knit) – pletenje (knitting)*
  • gristi (to bite) – grizenje (bite)*

Verbs ending with -či

  • striči (to cut hair) – striženje (haircut)*

On the other hand, one of the most common ending for Slovene verbs is -iti and the nouns have different endings:

Nouns ending with -ba

  • telovaditi (to work out) – telovadba (gymnastics)
  • ponuditi (to offer) – ponudba (offer)
  • spremeniti (to change, to modify) – sprememba (change)*
  • odrediti (to decree ) – odredba (order, decree)

Nouns ending with ja

  • vaditi (to practise) – vaja (exercise)
  • hoditi (to walk) – hoja (walk)

Nouns ending with -nja

  • voziti (to drive) – vožnja (ride)*
  • prositi (to ask) – prošnja (request)*

Nouns ending with -itev

  • rešiti (to solve) – rešitev (solution)
  • vrniti (to return) – vrnitev (return)
  • ločiti (to separate) – ločitev (separation)

There are other endings that follow a certain “pattern”.

Verbs ending with -ati becomes -anje

  • plavati (to swim) – plavanje (swim, swimming)
  • smučati (to ski) – smučanje (skiing)
  • potovati (to travel) – potovanje (travel, travelling)
  • oblikovati (to design) – oblikovanje (design)
  • tekmovati (to compete) – tekmovanje (competition)

Verbs ending with -ti becomes -tje

  • peti (to sing) – petje (singing)
  • piti (to drink) – pitje (drink)

And other endings.

Nouns endings with -ek

  • začeti (to start) – začetek (beginning)
  • dogoditi se (to happen) – dogodek (event)

No ending

  • teči (to run) – tek (race)
  • sprehoditi (to take a walk) – sprehod (promenade, walk)
  • oditi (to go, to leave) – odhod (departure)
  • lagati (to lie) – laž (lie)

Of course, there are many more examples and it will be difficult to remember all of them at once. But by knowing that it is possible to group them up, it should be easier to learn them – plus it is very fun and useful way to expand your Slovene vocabulary!

Hope you enjoyed! If you have any questions or comments, please let me know via comment!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.

Nouns – Neuter Exceptions

Neuter Slovene nouns end with “-e” or “-o” and follow the six grammatical cases known as skloni. Neuter exceptions have the same endings, but with some extra “add-ups”, which we will cover now.

Ending with -O

Most nouns ending in “-o” are neuter ( if it’s not masculine exceptions). You will probably recognize some of them.

When declined, “-es” is added.

  • kolo (bicycle) → Grem z kolesom6E  (I go with bicycle).
  • drevo (tree) → Imamo veliko dreves2M (We have lots of trees).
  • telo (body), slovo (farewell)
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 telo telesi telesa
Sklon 2 telesa teles teles
Sklon 3 telesu telesoma telesom
Sklon 4 telo telesi telesa
Sklon 5 telesu telesih telesih
Sklon 6 telesom telesoma telesi

When declined,  it takes a different forms and “-es” is added.

  • oko (eye) → Tim je imel poškodbe očesa4M (Tim had eyes injuries).
  • uho (ear) → esa1Mme bolijo (My ears hurt me).
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 uho esi esa
Sklon 2 esa es es
Sklon 3 esu esoma esom
Sklon 4 uho esi esa
Sklon 5 esu esih esih
Sklon 6 esom esoma esi

Ending with -E

Another ending for neuter is “-e” (again, if it’s not a masculine exceptions).

When declined, “-t” is added, usually for youths.

  • tele (calf, baby cow) → Letos imamo tri teleta4M (This year we have three calves).
  • dekle (little girl) →  V skupini so tri dekleta1M (In the group are three little girls).
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 dekle dekleti dekleta
Sklon 2 dekleta deklet deklet
Sklon 3 dekletu dekletoma dekletom
Sklon 4 dekle
dekleta
dekleti dekleta
Sklon 5 dekletu dekletih dekletih
Sklon 6 dekletom dekletoma dekleti

When the ending, “-n” is added.

  • ime (name) → Pes je brez imena2E (The dog is without a name).
  • vreme (weather) → Danes nimamo lepega vremena2E (Today we don’t have good weather).
  • pleme (tribe), breme (load), ramaž / rames (shoulder)
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 ime imeni imena
Sklon 2 imena imen imen
Sklon 3 imenu imenoma imenom
Sklon 4 ime imeni imena
Sklon 5 imenu imenih imenih
Sklon 6 imenom imenoma imeni

If compared with feminine and masculine exceptions, neuters are probably less complicated. Although, as a foreigner, learning “exceptions” can sometimes be difficult. From my point of view, the importance is not to always remember the exceptions, but to know that they exist. If you have any questions, let me know!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Nouns – Masculine Exceptions

Masculine Slovene nouns generally have a consonant ending, which follows the six grammatical cases known as skloni. Although, in some cases, the nouns don’t end with a consonant, but they are also masculine.

International Words

Nouns that you might recognized without knowing Slovene, often “borrowed” from another language and don’t end with a consonant.

When declined, nothing “extra” is added. 

  • avto (car) → Grem z avtom6  (I go with car).
  • kino (movie theater) → Sem v kinu5 (I’m at the movie theater).
  • radio (radio) → Sem brez radia (I’m without radio).
  • finale (final), disko (disco)

When declined, “-j” is added.

  • taksi (taxi) → Sem v taksiju5 (I’m in the taxi).
  • hobi (hobby) → Nimam hobija2 (I don’t have hobby).
  • kanu (canoe) → Grem z kanujem6 (I go with canoe).
  • iglu (igloo), abonma (subscription), bife (bar), nivo (level), kuli (ballpoint pen)

Ending with -R

In general, masculine nouns end with a consonant. Many masculine nouns end with the consonant “-r” are considered as exceptions.

When declined, “-j” is added.

  • papir (paper) → Nimam papirja2 (I don’t have paper).
  • denar (money) → Imam težave z denarjem6 (I have problems with money).
  • some people: kuhar (cook), kolesar (biker), gozdar (forester)

When the ending is “-er“, the “e” disappears.

  • veter (wind) → Danes je brez vetra2 (Today is without wind).
  • meter (meter) → To je dva metra1 visoko (This is two meters tall).
  • Peter, Koper, Alexander

Ending with -E, -I or -O

Some masculine nouns, mostly names, can be confused with neutral gender as the ending is not a consonant but  “-e”, “-i” or “-o”.

Masculine nouns ending with “-e”, when declined “-t” is added.

  • e (father) → Grem z očetom6 v trgovino (I go with father to the store).
  • Tone, Jože, Anže, Ažbe, Jure, Bine

Masculine nouns ending with “-i”, when declined “-j” is added. 

  • i (father) → Grem z očijem6 v trgovino (I go with father to the store).
  • Franci, Timi, Edi
Oče and oči both can mean father or grandfather, depending on the region.

And oči can also mean oko (eye) in plural, which has a different ending.

Masculine names ending with “-o”, when declined nothing “extra” is added. 

  • Marko → Poročila sem se z Markom6 (I’m married with Marko).
  • Branko, Zlatko, Teo, Stanko, Miro

Ending with -A

As we know, endings in “-a” is often used with feminine nouns, but some masculine names also end with “-a”.

When declined, it has two possible endings : no change or as a feminine noun.

  • Miha → Šla sem brez Miha / Mihe2 (I went without Miha).
  • Luka, Jaka, Grega

Bonus Endings

For some short masculine nouns, when declined (all skloni), an “-ov” is added in dual and plural forms.

  • grad (castle) → V Evropi so veliko gradov2(m) (There are a lot of castles in Europe).
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 grad gradova gradovi
Sklon 2 gradu*
grada
gradov gradov
Sklon 3 gradu gradovoma gradovom
Sklon 4 grad gradova gradove
Sklon 5 gradu gradovih gradovih
Sklon 6 gradom gradovoma gradovi
  • sok (juice) → Danes sem popila dva sokova4(d) (Today I drank two juices).
  • grob (grave), volk (wolf), most (bridge), glas (voice), gozd (forest)
*And if you want to be extra classy, some short words in Second Sklon, the singular form has two versions: one is as usual and the other, the ”-a” becomes ”-u”.

  • Some that adds ”-ov”: grad (castle), glas (voice), most (bridge).
  • Some that doesn’t add ”-ov”: led (ice), med (honey)

Some masculine nouns for ”people”, when declined in First Sklon, the plural form has two versions: one is as usual and the other, a ”-j” is added.

  • kmet (farmer) → Tam so trije kmeti / kmetje1(m) (There are three farmers).
  • študent (student), gost (guest), sosed (neighbor), gospod (mister).

Learning “exceptions” is never easy, but it’s like going the extra mile! Determination and practice! If you have any questions or other words that you would like to add-in, let me know!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Nouns – Second Feminine Declension, Part 3

In general, feminine nouns in Slovene end with -a, but there are some exceptions. Feminine nouns ending with –ev use the first feminine declension. Second feminine declension – druga ženska sklanjatev, is divided into three sub-groups:

Second Feminine Declension, short nouns

Some short nouns, such as luč (light), noč (night), sol (salt), pot (path) are feminine. There are no pattern or specific endings, so you need to learn them.

If you know the “second-second” feminine declension with ending with -en/-em/el then learning the “third-second” should be fairly easy. Pay attention to the text in color.

Here’s the table of Skloni with feminine noun ending with –en/-em/el:

2.2  ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 lepa pesem lepi pesmi lepe pesmi
 SKLON 2 lepe pesmi lepih pesmi lepih pesmi
 SKLON 3 lepi pesmi lepima pesmima lepim pesmim
 SKLON 4 lepo pesem lepi pesmi lepe pesmi
 SKLON 5 lepi pesmi lepih pesmih lepih pesmih
 SKLON 6 lepo pesmijo lepima pesmima lepimi pesmimi

Here’s the table of Skloni with short feminine noun :

2.3  ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 hitra pot hitri poti hitre poti
 SKLON 2 hitre poti hitrih poti hitrih poti
 SKLON 3 hitri poti hitrima potema hitrim potem
 SKLON 4 hitro pot hitri poti hitre poti
 SKLON 5 hitri poti hitrih poteh hitrih poteh
 SKLON 6 hitro potjo hitrima potema hitrimi potmi

❤ A simplified version of the ending:

 2.2 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -Ø -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 2 -E -I -IH -I -IH -I
 SKLON 3  -I -I -IMA –IMA -IM –IM
 SKLON 4 -O -Ø -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 5 -I – I -IH -IH -IH –IH
 SKLON 6 -O –IJO -IMA –IMA -IMI –IMI

and

 2.3 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -Ø -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 2 -E -I -IH -I -IH -I
 SKLON 3  -I -I -IMA –EMA -IM –EM
 SKLON 4 -O -Ø -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 5 -I – I -IH -IH -IH –EH
 SKLON 6 -O –JO -IMA –EMA -IMI –MI

If we compare the two tables:

  • the dual and plural form in third and sixth case, the –I becomes –E and
  • the singular and plural form in sixth case, the –I is removed.

The declension of adjectives remain the same as in “normal” declension.


There is no specific ending for short feminine nouns that are declined by the “third-second” feminine declension, so here is a short list:

dlan (palm), jed (dish, meal), klet (cellar, basement), klop (bench), kost (bone), kri (blood), moč (strength), peč (stove), pomoč (help), prst (finger), skrb (care, worry), smer (direction), smet (garbage), stran (side, page), stvar (thing), utež (weigth), vas (village)…


Feminine declensions can be quite overwhelming at first, that’s why you need to learn them step by step and always start with what you already know. If you have any questions or comments – be sure to let me know – parenthood keeps me busy but I will try to reply as soon as possible 🙂

Update – here is my Cheat sheet “Table of First and Second Feminine Declension“. More can be found under Learning Materials.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Colloquial Slovene – Vocabulary

At school or in books, standard Slovene – knjižna slovenščina is taught with the proper grammar and vocabulary. This literary version of the language is found in newspapers, on TV and such. On the other hand, colloquial Slovene – neknjižna slovenščina, is used in familiar and informal conversation or online chat. Sometimes, you will notice that it sounds like it was borrowed from another language, such as German or English.

I noticed that while chit-chatting with my in-laws, family, neighbors, friends, family in Slovenia, they used some words, po domače (at home), that I wouldn’t understand right away. Now I’m using them everyday.


Cuk’r
means sladkor (sugar) | i.e. Cuk’r mi je padel (My sugar is dropping).

Friš’n
means svež (fresh) | i.e. Vsak dan jem friš’n kruh (Everyday I eat fresh bread).

Cajt
means čas (time) | i.e. A ‘maš cajt (Do you have time)?

Fajn
means lepo (nice, pretty) | i.e. Fajn se ‘mejte (Have a good day).

Jest
means jaz (I) i.e. Jest ne jem torte (I do not eat cake).

Južna
means obrok (meal) | i.e. Južna je že na mizi (The meal is already on the table).

Laufat
means teči (to run) | i.e.  Pes laufa zunaj (The dog is running outside).

Kofe
means kava (coffee) | i.e. Kdo bo kofe (Who will have a coffee)?

Merkati
means paziti (to look after) | i.e. A lahko merkaš Nino za pet minut (Can you look after Nina for 5 minutes)?

Deka
means volnena odeja (woolen blanket) | i.e. Spim brez deke (I sleep without blanket).

Glih
means ravno (just, exactly) | i.e. Sem glih prišla domov (I just came home).

Žleht
means hudoben (malicious, wicked, naughty) | i.e.  Ona ima žleht jezik (She has a wicked tongue).

Štala
means hlev (stall) | i.e. Krave so v štali (The cows are in the stall).

Nucati
means potrebovati, rabiti (to need) | i.e. Kaj nucaš (What do you need)?

Župa
means juha (soup) | i.e. Danes sem jedla govejo župo (Today I ate beef soup).

Uštimati se
means urediti se (to arrange yourself) | i.e. Za zmenek se bom lepo uštimala (For my date I will arrange myself prettily).

Zmartran
means utrujen (tired) | i.e. Danes sem zmartrana (Today I am tired).

Šporget
means štedilnik na trda goriva (wood-burning stove) | i.e. Doma imamo šporget  (We have a wood-burning stove at home).

Gužva
means gneča (terrible crowd) | i.e.  Na sejemu je bila gužva (There was a terrible crowd at the fair).


Added by readers 🙂

flaša”steklenica (bottle); šalca”skodelica (cup); štenge”stopnice (stairs); rampe”zapornice (railway gate); lojtra” – lestev (ladder), šajtrga”samokolnica (wheelbarrow)


This is just a short list, I’m sure that there are a lot more po domače words.If you can think of any, please let me (and others) know via comments! Knowing about them (and integrating them) is an excellent way to converse informally with Slovenians! But do keep in mind about the standard Slovene as well.

Please note that I live near Tržič, which is close to the Austrian border, therefore, many of the words are inspired by German.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Homonyms in Slovene

Just like English or any language, Slovene also has some homonyms, enakozvožnice – words with same spelling or pronunciation but different meaning. It can be quite tricky and confusing at the beginning, especially when trying to expand your vocabulary, but if you think it that way: it’s like to kill two (or more) birds with one stone!


Kot
1. corner, angle | i.e. Stol je v kotu(The chair is at the corner).
2. like | i.e. Tiha kot miš (Quiet like a mouse).

Jezik
1. language | i.e. Koliko jezikov2 govorite (How many languages do you speak)?
2. tongue | i.e. Kača ima dolg jezik4 (Snake has long tongue).
It is the similar in French.

Klop
1. bench | i.e. Sedim na klopi5 (I’m sittng on the bench).
2. tick | i.e. Pazi se klopov2 (Beware of ticks)!

Metuljček
1. little butterfly | i.e. Vidim lepe metuljčke4 (I see pretty little butterflies).
2. bowtie | i.e. Janez nosi metuljček4 vsak dan (Janez wears a bowtie everyday).

“Je”
1. is | i.e. Žan je prijazen (Žan is nice).
2. eats | i.e. Marko je pico4 (Marko eats pizza).
It is written the same, but the pronunciation is different

Čelo
1. forehead | i.e. Ema ima buško4 na čelu5 (Ema has a bump on her forehead).
2. violoncello | i.e. Anita igra čelo4 (Anita plays violoncello).

Tečaj
1. course | i.e. Grem na tečaj4 slovenščine2 v Ljubljani5 (I go to Slovene course in Ljubljana).
2. rate | Banka ima menjalniški tečaj4 (The bank has exchange rate).
3. pole | i.e. Božiček živi na severnem tečaju5 (Santa Claus lives in North Pole).


Added by readers 🙂

Kopati – 1. to bathe 2. to dig
Hotel 
-1. the building 2. masculine and singular participle for past and future tense.


These  are just a few examples of Slovene homonyms that I can think of at the moment. I am certain that there are way more – if you can think of any, share them with me in comments and I will add them!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Nouns – Second Feminine Declension, Part 2

In Slovene, feminine nouns usually end with -a, but some have a different endings and declensions. First feminine declension is used with nouns ending with -ev. The second feminine declension is divided into three sub-groups:

  • 2.1 Feminine declension: nouns ending with –ost,
  • 2.2 Feminine declension: some nouns ending with –en/em/el,
  • 2.3 Feminine declension: some short nouns.

Second Feminine Declension, endings withen/em/el

Nouns that end with –en/em/eare feminine. For example, ljubezen (love), pesem (song) and misel (thought) are all beautiful nouns and thus feminine 😛

Be careful not to confuse with adjectives that end with er/ek/en/el as they are masculine. More information can be found here: Slovene Adjectives in General.

Also, notice how the “e” is underlined, it means that when declined, the e” is removed.

If you know the “first-second” feminine declension with -ost, then learning the “second-second” feminine declension with -en/-em/el should be fairly easy. Pay attention to the text in red.

Here’s the table of Skloni with feminine noun ending with –ost:

2.1 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 lepa starost lepi starosti lepe starosti
 SKLON 2 lepe starosti lepih starosti lepih starosti
 SKLON 3 lepi starosti lepima starost(i)ma lepim starostim
 SKLON 4 lepo starost lepi starosti lepe starosti
 SKLON 5 lepi starosti lepih starostih lepih starostih
 SKLON 6 lepo starostjo lepima starost(i)ma lepimi starostmi

Here’s the table of Skloni with feminine noun ending with –en/-em/el:

2.2  ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 hitra misel hitri misli hitre misli
 SKLON 2 hitre misli hitrih misli hitrih misli
 SKLON 3 hitri misli hitrima mislima hitrim mislim
 SKLON 4 hitro misel hitri misli hitre misli
 SKLON 5 hitri misli hitrih mislih hitrih mislih
 SKLON 6 hitro mislijo hitrima mislima hitrimi mislimi

❤ A simplified version of the ending:

 2.1 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -OST -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 2 -E -I -IH -I -IH -I
 SKLON 3  -I -I -IMA –(I)MA -IM -IM
 SKLON 4 -O -OST -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 5 -I -I -IH -IH -IH -IH
 SKLON 6 -O –JO -IMA –(I)MA -IMI –MI

and

 2.2 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -EL -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 2 -E -I -IH -I -IH -I
 SKLON 3  -I -I -IMA –IMA -IM -IM
 SKLON 4 -O -EL -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 5 -I – I -IH -IH -IH -IH
 SKLON 6 -O –IJO -IMA –IMA -IMI –IMI

If we compare the two tables, you will see that it is very similar, except at four places, where an –I is added:

  • the singular form in sixth case has an “extra” –I infront of the –JO, remains the same as its original form,
  • the dual form in third and sixth case has an “extra” –I infront of –MA, 
  • the plural form in sixth case also has an “extra” –I infront of –MI (which is the same as in normal feminine declension ending with -a).

The declension of adjectives doesn’t change and it remains the same as in “normal” feminine declension.


Second feminine declension is divided into three groups, and it can feel quite overwhelming – do not panic (or give up). In my opinion, just knowing that there are different groups and endings is already a big achievement. With practice and determination, you will learn to use them correctly.

If you have any questions or comments, just leave me a message and I will try to get back at you as soon as I can!

Update – here is my Cheat sheet “Table of First and Second Feminine Declension“. More can be found under Learning Materials.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Nouns – Second Feminine Declension, Part 1

As mentioned in a previous post, Slovene feminine nouns are recognized with their ending -a, although, some feminine nouns have different endings. Such as -ev, which are declined with the first feminine declension.  The second feminine declension, known as druga ženska sklanjatev, are for feminine nouns that end with ost, some –en/em/el and some short nouns.

Second feminine declension will be divided into three parts:

Second Female Declension, endings with -ost

Nouns that end with ost, such as kakovost (quality), starost (age), možnost (possibility) are feminine.

If you know the female declension of nouns ending with -a, learning the “first-second” feminine declension ending with -ost should be easy. Pay attention to the text in color.

Here’s the table of Skloni with feminine noun ending with –a:

 “normal” Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 dobra miza dobri mizi dobre mize
 SKLON 2 dobre mize dobrih miz_ dobrih miz_
 SKLON 3 dobri mizi dobrima mizama dobrim mizam
 SKLON 4 dobro mizo dobri mizi dobre mize
 SKLON 5 dobri mizi dobrih mizah dobrih mizah
 SKLON 6 dobro mizo dobrima mizama dobrimi mizami

Here’s the table of Skloni with feminine noun ending with –ost:

2.1 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 dobra kakovost dobri kakovosti dobre kakovosti
 SKLON 2 dobre kakovosti dobrih kakovosti dobrih kakovosti
 SKLON 3 dobri kakovosti dobrima kakovost(i)ma dobrim kakovostim
 SKLON 4 dobro kakovost dobri kakovosti dobre kakovosti
 SKLON 5 dobri kakovosti dobrih kakovostih dobrih kakovostih
 SKLON 6 dobro kakovostjo dobrima kakovost(i)ma dobrimi kakovostmi

❤ A simplified version of the ending:

 “normal” Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -A -I -I -E -E
 SKLON 2 -E -E  -IH –_ -IH –_
 SKLON 3  -I -I  -IMA –AMA -IM -AM
 SKLON 4 -O –O  -I -I -E -E
 SKLON 5 -I – I -IH -AH -IH -AH
 SKLON 6 -O –O -IMA – AMA -IMI – AMI

and

 2.1 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -OST -I –I -E –I
 SKLON 2 -E –I -IH –I -IH –I
 SKLON 3  -I –I -IMA -(I)MA -IM –IM
 SKLON 4 -O –OST -I –I -E –I
 SKLON 5 -I – I -IH –IH -IH –IH
 SKLON 6 -O –JO -IMA – (I)MA -IMI – MI

If we compare the two table, you will notice that there is basically a lot of –I with -ost nouns, except:

  • the singular form in fourth case remains the same as its original form,
  • the singular form in sixth case, instead of being just –O, it becomes –JO,
  • the dual form in third and sixth case, instead of –AMA, it becomes –(I)MA

    Dual form in third and sixth case of this group of feminine nouns can be –IMA or –MA, both endings are accepted. Although, it is good to know that on Amebis Besana (a great search engine for Slovene words) will only show the form -MA.
  • the plural form in sixth case is only –MI instead of –IMI.

The declension of adjectives doesn’t change and it remains the same as in “normal”.


Other Nouns – “Exceptions”

Beside nouns ending with –ost, there are also other nouns that fall into the 2.1. Feminine declension group. Such as:

jesen (autumn), kokoš (chicken), miš (mouse), nit (thread), obrv (eyebrow), pamet (intelligence), perut(wing), polnoč (midnight), pomlad (spring), smrt (death) zavest (consciousness), žival (animal)…


Due to exceptions, second Feminine declension can be quite challenging, but there’s no need to panic. I know some Slovenians who “have the grammar in the little finger” (Understanding Slovenian Idioms #002) that also find it difficult. If you have any comments, questions about the second feminine declension, just drop me a message or a comment!

Update – here is my Cheat sheet “Table of First and Second Feminine Declension“. More can be found under Learning Materials.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Nouns – First Feminine Declension

As we know, feminine Slovene nouns are usually identified by their -a ending, that group follows the six grammatical cases known as skloni. But some feminine nouns are known as exceptions: they have different endings and follow different declensions.

If you aren’t sure how to identify nouns gender, read: How to Determine the Gender of a Noun in Slovene.

First Female Declension, endings with –ev

Nouns that end with -ev, such as breskev (peach), cerkev (church), lestev (ladder) are feminine. They belong in the first feminine declension group known as prva ženska sklanjatev. Notice how the “e” is underlined, it means that when declined, the “e” is removed.

If you know you know the female declension of nouns ending with -a, learning the first feminine declension ending with -ev should be easy. Pay attention to the text in blue.

Here’s the table of Skloni with feminine noun ending with –a:

 “normal” Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 stara miza stari mizi stare mize
 SKLON 2 stare mize starih miz_ starih miz_
 SKLON 3 stari mizi starima mizama starim mizam
 SKLON 4 staro mizo stari mizi stare mize
 SKLON 5 stari mizi starih mizah starih mizah
 SKLON 6 staro mizo starima mizama starimi mizami

Here’s the table of Skloni with feminine noun ending with –e:

  1 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 stara breskev stari breskvi stare breskve
 SKLON 2 stare breskve starih breskev starih lestev
 SKLON 3 stari breskvi starima breskvama starim breskvam
 SKLON 4 staro breskev stari breskvi stare breskve
 SKLON 5 stari breskvi starih breskvah starih breskvah
 SKLON 6 staro breskvijo starima breskvama starimi breskvami

As you can see, most of the endings in the first female declension are almost the same as the “normal” feminine declension – only four endings are different.

❤ A simplified version of the ending:

 “normal” Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -A -I -I -E -E
 SKLON 2 -E -E  -IH –_ -IH –_
 SKLON 3  -I -I  -IMA -AMA -IM -AM
 SKLON 4 -O –O  -I -I -E -E
 SKLON 5 -I – I -IH -AH -IH -AH
 SKLON 6 -O –O -IMA – AMA -IMI – AMI

and

 1 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -EV -I -I -E -E
 SKLON 2 -E -E  -IH –EV -IH –EV
 SKLON 3  -I -I  -IMA -AMA -IM -AM
 SKLON 4 -O –EV  -I -I -E -E
 SKLON 5 -I – I -IH -AH -IH -AH
 SKLON 6 -O –IJO -IMA – AMA -IMI – AMI

If we compare the two tables:

  • the singular form in fourth case remains the same as its original form,
  • the singular form in sixth case, instead of being just –O, it becomes –IJO and
  • the dual and plural form in second case remains the same as its original form.

The declension of adjectives remain the same as in “normal” declension.


Also, an interesting fact: some feminine nouns ending with -ev derive from a verb. Such as:

  • rešitev (solution), which comes from rešiti (to solve),
  • ločitev (separation) ← ločiti (to separate),
  • prireditev (arrangement) ← prirediti (to arrange).

But please note that not all verbs have an –ev version!


Oh… since this is the first feminine declension, there is a second, third and fourth female declension – but those will be covered for another post! 🙂 If you have any comments, questions, just drop a comment or send me a message! I will try to reply as soon as I can!

On a side note, this was not even a super long or detailed post to write and it took me what seems like FOREVER! I guess with a baby that feeds on my attention, I can’t really be helped – especially now that she loves to practice her new skill: rolling!

Update – here is my Cheat sheet “Table of First and Second Feminine Declension“. More can be found under Learning Materials.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Third Sklon – Dative

The Slovene grammar is divided into 6 grammatical cases known as skloni. Understanding when to use which will greatly help you improve your Slovene.

Last but not least – the third sklon. Although, before attacking it, I suggest that you be familiar with the First Sklon – Nominative, Fourth Sklon – AccusativeSecond Sklon – GenitiveFifth Sklon – Locative and Sixth Sklon – Instrumental.

Third Sklon – Dative

The third sklon, also known as dajalnik or dativ in Slovene, is the “Dative” case.

Here’s the table for the Sklon 3, Dative (I give…)

SKLON 3  (m) PRIDEN_ PES_ (ž) SIVA MAČKA (s) VELIKO LETALO
(E) Dam novemu psu sivi mački velikemu letalu
(D) Dam novima psoma sivima mačkama velikima letaloma
(M) Dam novim psom sivim mačkam velikim letalom
Reminder:  (E) ednina/singular, (D) dvojina/dual, (M) množina/plural and (m) moški/masculine, (ž) ženski/feminine, (s) srednji/neutral.

As you can see, in Dative, many endings are the same or similar. Refer to the colors:

  • the masculine form and neutral form are exactly the same,
  • the dual masculine, feminine and neutral form all ends with an a,
  • the plural masculine, feminine and neutral form all ends with m and
  • the dual and plural feminine form differs from the masculine/neutral forms by an a.

❤ And here’s an simplified version of the endings, easier to remember :

SKLON 3 (m) (ž) (s)
(E) EMU –U -I -I EMUU
(D) –IMA –OMA* –IMAAMA –IMA –OMA*
(M) –IM –OM* –IMAM –IM –OM*
Reminder: * is the famous bracket (c, č, š, ž j) where the o changes into e.

When to use the third sklon

  1. the noun is indirectly affected by the verb
    For example, I give (what?)4 a book (to who?)3 to a friend  Dam (kaj?) knjigo4 (komu?) prijatelju3.
  2. following specific preposition
    • k/h (to) – when there is movement or direction, which is similar to the fourth sklon, but the destination is a person. | i.e. I go to the doctor → Grem k zdravniku3.
      The preposition h is used if the following word starts with K or G.

      The rest uses k.
    • proti (toward/against) | i.e. I go toward the seaGrem proti morju3 / I am against smoking → Sem proti kajenju3.
    • kljub (despite) | Despite the rain, I go to school → Kljub dežju3 grem v šolo4.
  3.  following specific verb
    • pomagati (to help), telefonirati (to phone)smejati se (to laugh), obljubiti (to promise)čestitati (to congratulate), zaupati (to trust)…
      Some verbs can be used with the fourth or/and the third sklon, it always depends on the context (direct or indirect).

If you’ve made it this far, congratulations! 🙂 The third sklon is not any less important than the others skloni, but it is the last one on my list.

Remembering all the endings, understanding all the skloni and being able to easily apply them correct will take some time, but do keep up the good work and one day, you will be able to proudly say “Slovnico imam v malem prstu”! (If you’re not sure what it means, check out Slovenian Idioms.)

Update – here is my Cheat sheet “Table of Skloni “. More can be found under Learning Materials.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.