Slovene Verbs to Nouns

A fun way to enrich your vocabulary is to know how to convert Slovene verbs into nouns! It might seems a little random at first, but there are actually guidelines that can help you remember!

In general, it will be related to the verb or the noun endings.


One of the most commonly seen ending for Slovene verbs to nouns is -enje and it applies to different verb endings:

Verbs ending with -iti

  • iti se (to learn) – enje (study, learning)
  • kolesariti (to bike) – kolesarjenje* (cycling)
  • dovoliti (to allow, to permit) – dovoljenje* (permission)

Verbs ending with -eti

  • živeti (to live) – življenje (life)*
  • hiteti (to hurry) – hitenje (haste)
  • sedeti (to sit) – sedenje (seat)
  • leteti (to fly) – letenje (flight)*

Verbs ending with -sti

  • vesti (to embroider) – vezenje (embroidery)*
  • plesti (to knit) – pletenje (knitting)*
  • gristi (to bite) – grizenje (bite)*

Verbs ending with -či

  • striči (to cut hair) – striženje (haircut)*

On the other hand, one of the most common ending for Slovene verbs is -iti and the nouns have different endings:

Nouns ending with -ba

  • telovaditi (to work out) – telovadba (gymnastics)
  • ponuditi (to offer) – ponudba (offer)
  • spremeniti (to change, to modify) – sprememba (change)*
  • odrediti (to decree ) – odredba (order, decree)

Nouns ending with ja

  • vaditi (to practise) – vaja (exercise)
  • hoditi (to walk) – hoja (walk)

Nouns ending with -nja

  • voziti (to drive) – vožnja (ride)*
  • prositi (to ask) – prošnja (request)*

Nouns ending with -itev

  • rešiti (to solve) – rešitev (solution)
  • vrniti (to return) – vrnitev (return)
  • ločiti (to separate) – ločitev (separation)

There are other endings that follow a certain “pattern”.

Verbs ending with -ati becomes -anje

  • plavati (to swim) – plavanje (swim, swimming)
  • smučati (to ski) – smučanje (skiing)
  • potovati (to travel) – potovanje (travel, travelling)
  • oblikovati (to design) – oblikovanje (design)
  • tekmovati (to compete) – tekmovanje (competition)

Verbs ending with -ti becomes -tje

  • peti (to sing) – petje (singing)
  • piti (to drink) – pitje (drink)

And other endings.

Nouns endings with -ek

  • začeti (to start) – začetek (beginning)
  • dogoditi se (to happen) – dogodek (event)

No ending

  • teči (to run) – tek (race)
  • sprehoditi (to take a walk) – sprehod (promenade, walk)
  • oditi (to go, to leave) – odhod (departure)
  • lagati (to lie) – laž (lie)

Of course, there are many more examples and it will be difficult to remember all of them at once. But by knowing that it is possible to group them up, it should be easier to learn them – plus it is very fun and useful way to expand your Slovene vocabulary!

Hope you enjoyed! If you have any questions or comments, please let me know via comment!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.

Phrases – To Know […]

Usually when you translate verbs from one language to another, you will end up with a direct translation. Although, an interesting verb in Slovene is the verb “to know” in English, because depending  on the context, it can be translated into three Slovene versions.

Vedeti – to know

The verb vedeti (to know) is used for common knowledge or things that can be learnt through information or observation.

  • Vem, da je Slovenija v Evropi5. (I know that Slovenia is in Europe).
  • A veste koliko je 5 krat 5 (Do you know how much is 5 times 5)?
  • Vem, katera kavarna ima najboljšo kavo4 (I know which coffee shop has the best coffee).
  • Veliko veste o politiki5(You know a lot about politics).

Znati – to know

The verb znati (to know) is used for knowledge, like a language or a skill.

  • Znam slovensko4angleško4, francosko4 in kitajsko4.
    (I know Slovene, English, French and Chinese).
  • Pika zna plavati, kuhati in voziti (Pika knows to swim, to cook and to drive).

Poznati – to know

The verb poznati (to know) is used when you know about someone or something.

  • Poznam to pesem4 (I know this song).
  • A poznate Martino4 ki živi v Kranju5 (Do you know Martina that lives in Kranj)?
  • Tina veliko potuje in pozna veliko držav (Tina travels a lot and knows many countries).

Bonus : Spoznati – to meet, to get to know, to realize

The verb spoznati (to meet, to get to know, to realize) can be confusing because it contains the verb znati and poznati, but has a different meaning.

  • Tilen in Maja sta spoznala na jezikovnem tečaju5 (Tilen and Maja met at the course).
  • Karl hoče spoznati Katjo4 (Karl wants to get to know Katja).
  • Jan je spoznal, da voziti med prometni konici5 ni dobra ideja. (Jan realized that driving during rush hour is not a good idea).

When you’re not sure which Slovene verbs to use, always remember the context!  If you have any questions, feel free to ask me!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Slovene Irregular Participle for Past and Future Tense

As we know, participles are an essential part of Past Tense and Future Tense. If the participle, which is “root of verb + L_“,  is regular, then it is very simple, but if the participle falls into the irregular group, then you will have to remember. Also, keep in mind that irregular verbs in Present Tense don’t always equal irregular participle.

Past and Future Tense

A quick reminder of the Past Tense and Future Tense “formula”.

Past Tense = To Be (Present Tense) + Root of Verb + L_
Future Tense = To Be (Future Tense) + Root of Verb + L_

Regular participles of verbs ending with -ti, such as kuhati (to cook),
-ti becomes l_, sem / bom kuhal.

Verbs ending with -iti (to go)

  • itiel) – to go
  • priti (prišel) – to come
  • oditi (odšel) – to leave
  • preiti (prešel) – to go over
  • uiti (ušel) – to escape
  • zaiti (zašel) – to stray
  • raziti se (razšel se) – to break up

Verbs ending with -jesti (to eat)

  • jesti (jedel) – to eat
  • pojesti (pojedel) – to eat up
  • najesti (najedel) – to appease one’s hunger

Verbs ending with -pasti (to fall)

  • pasti (padel) – to fall
  • napasti (napadel) – to assault
  • odpasti (odpadel) – to be cancelled
  • propasti (propadel) – to collapse
  • razpasti (razpadel) – to disintegrate
  • zapasti (zapadel) – to lapse

Verbs ending with -nesti (to carry)

  • nesti (nešel) – to fall
  • obnesti se (odnešel) – to be effective
  • odnesti (odnešel) – to carry away
  • prinesti (prinešel) – to bring
  • vnesti (vnešel) – to insert
  • nanesti (nanešel) – to apply

Verbs ending with –reti (not a verb!)

  • odpreti (odprl) – to open
  • zapreti (zaprl) – to close
  • zavreti (zavrl) – to brake
  • scvreti (scvrl) – to fry
  • umreti (umrl) – to die
  • zadreti se (zadrl) – to yell

Verbs ending with –či

  • reči (rekel) – to say
  • peči (pekel) – to bake
  • teči (tekel) – to run
  • obleči se (oblekel) – to get dressed
  • odreči (odrekel) – to give up
  • vleči (vlekel) – to pull
  • vreči (vrgel) – to throw
  • streči (stregel) – to serve
  • doseči (dosegel) – to reach
  • leči (legel) – to lie down
  • moči (mogel) – to be able to
  • preseči (presegel) – to exceed

And others…

  • najti (našel) – to find
  • gristi (grizel) – to bite
  • krasti (kradel) – to steal
  • tepsti (tepel) – to fight
  • zmesti (zmedel) – to confuse
  • bosti (bodel) – to sting
  • splesti (spletel) – to knit
  • zebsti (zeblo) – to feel cold
  • vesti se (vedel se) – to behave
  • navesti (navedel) – to quote

I’m sure you are already familiar with some of the irregular participle. As you can see,  they follow a certain pattern, but not always. Most of them you will still need to memorize, but same as always, the more you will use them, the easier you will remember! 🙂 If you have any questions or any that you would like me to add, let me know!

Good thing to note is that the irregular verbs biti and imeti have regular participle; bil and imel.

And remember that biti in Past Tense is sem bil, but in Future Tense, it is just bom.

Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Phrases – To Be […]

The verb “biti” (to be) is one of essential verb to know in practically every language. It can be used alone or paired with an adjective – the possibilities are  endless. Depending on the situation, most precisely skloni also apply.

Verb Biti – To Be

Here’s a quick review of the verb biti (to be) in Present Tense, Past Tense and Future Tense, as well as in its negation form.

BITI  Present Tense Past Tense Future Tense
Jaz sem / nisem sem / nisem bom / ne bom
Ti si / nisi si / nisi boš / ne boš
On, Ona, Ono je / ni se / ni bo / ne bo
Midva, Midve/Medve sva / nisva sva / nisva bova / ne bova
Vidva, Vidve, Vedve sta / nista sta / nista bosta / ne bosta
Onadva, Onidve sta / nista sta / nista bosta / ne bosta
Mi, Me smo / nismo smo / nismo bomo / ne bomo
Vi, Ve ste / niste ste / niste boste / ne boste
Oni, One so / niso so / niso bodo / ne bodo*
*Please note The verb biti for “oni” has two possible endings: bodo or bojo.

1. Biti + [Noun]1

When the verb biti is used alone with a noun,  the First Sklon applies.

For example,

  • Jaz sem [Anna]1  (I am Anna).
  • Matt, Lina in Jan niso [sodelavci]1 (Matt, Lina and Jan are not coworkers).

2. Biti + Adjective

The verb to be is also used with adjective to describe a state.

Such as,

  • Biti lačen / žejen (To be hungry / thirsty)
  • Biti pozen / točen (To be late / on time)
  • Biti prehlajen  (To have a cold)
  • Biti zadovoljen / razočaran (To be satisfied / disappointed)
  • Biti vesel / žalosten (To be happy)
  • Biti poročen / samski (To be married / single)
  • Biti utrujen (To be tired)
When the e is underlined, it means that when declined, the “e” is removed.

Remember that the following adjective has to correspond with the subject. i.e. Otroci so lačni  (The children are hungry).

3. Biti + Adjective + (Preposition) + [Noun]X

Then to make the phrase more completed, a noun can be added. Depending on the situation, there might be or not be a preposition, as some skloni aren’t used with preposition.

  • Biti nor na […]4 (To be crazy about chocolate)
    Sem nora na čokolado (I’m crazy about chocolate).
  • Biti znan po […]5 (To be well-known for)
    Bled je znan po kremšniti (Bled is well-known for cream cake).
  • Biti povezan z/s […]6 (To be linked with)
    Sladkor je povezan z debelostjo (Sugar is linked with obesity).
  • Biti zaljubljen v […]4  (To be in love with)
    Miranda je zaljubljena v sodelavca (Miranda is in love with her coworker).
  • Biti tesno soroden z/s  […]6  (To be closely related to)
    Nemšcina je tesno sorodna z Angleščino (German is closely related to English).
  • Biti prepričan o […]5 (To be convinced of)
    Miha je prepričan o svojem delu (Miha is convinced of his work).
  • Biti naklonjen  […]3 (To be in favor of)
    Milan je naklonjen elektronskim položnicam (Milan is in favor of electronic billings).
  • Biti izpostavljen […]3 (To be exposed to)
    Moderni otroci so izpostavljeni tehnologiji (Modern children are exposed to technologies).

What’s important to remember is the context, as well as preposition that would dictates which sklon to use. If there’s other examples that you would want to share, or have any questions, please let me know!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Imperative Mood in Slovene

Regular Slovene verbs are usually quite simple and straightforward to apply and used. An interesting aspect of verbs is the imperative grammatical mood – velelnik. To give a command or an order, such as “come here” or “let’s go”. (Which is quite handy and essential to know when you have young children!)

As we know, infinitive verbs in Slovene are divided into different categories of endings and it affects the endings of its imperative form. The best way to remember it is to compare it with the “jaz” form in present tense.

For most  infinitive form ends with -TI

POVABITI (to invite) jaz povabim povabi / povabite
PRODATI (to sell) jaz prodam prodaj / prodajte
KAZATI (to show) jaz kažem kaži / kažite
POTOVATI (to travel) jaz potujem potuj / potujte

As you can see

  • IM → –I
  • AM → –AJ
  • EM → –I
  • (U)JEMJ
The imperative mood is usually used with the second person. For the plural form, it can’t be any simpler, you just add “-te” at the end.

For infinitive verbs that ends with -ČI

TEČI (to run) jaz tečem teci / tecite
REČI (to say) jaz rečem reci / recite
PEČI (to bake) jaz pečem peci / pecite

As you can see, the Č becomes C.

  • ČICI

For infinitive form ends with -TI, but that are irregular

BITI (to be) jaz sem bodi / bodite
ITI (to go) jaz grem pojdi / pojdite
JESTI (to eat) jaz jem jej / jejte
VEDETI (to know) jaz vem vedi / vedite
IMETI (to have) jaz imam imej / imejte
PRITI (to come) jaz pridem pridi / pridite
PITI (to drink) jaz pijem pij / pijte
OSTATI (to remain) jaz ostanem ostani / ostanite
GLEDATI (to watch, to look) jaz gledam glej / glejte
STATI (to stand) jaz stojim stoj / stojte
POVEDATI (to tell) jaz povem povej / povejte
IMETI (to have) jaz imam imej / imejte
VZETI (to take) jaz vzamem vzemi / vzemite
NAJETI (to hire) jaz najamem najemi / najemite
POKLICATI (to call) jaz pokličem pokliči / pokličite
POJETI (to sing) jaz pojem poj / pojte

The endings for irregular verbs do not follow a specific “pattern”, therefore you need to learn them by heart…


These are just short lists of verbs in the imperative mood. Regular verbs are not too difficult, but irregular ones can be quite tricky.  Practice makes perfect – the more you will use them, the easier it will be!

One reference that I can totally recommend for verbs is  Slovenski Glagol by Rada Lečič. If you have any questions or comments, do let me know! Two kids keep me busy, but I will always try my best to get back at you, as fast as possible! 🙂


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Word Family – Slovene Verbs

An interesting way to expand your vocabulary in any language is to learn by word family – besedna družina: a group of “new” words that are formed by adding a prefix and/or a suffix to a root word. I found that concept especially interesting when it comes to Slovene verbs.

One would think that Slovene verbs deriving from the same root verb would have some subtile “related” meaning but it is not always the case, even if they are connected at some point.

Prefixes

Same family verbs are mostly formed by adding a prefix to the root verb. And many of them are also prepositions.

Here’s a list of the most common ones: do- (till), iz- (from), na- (on), o- (about), ob- (at), od- (from), po- (around, after), pod- (under), pre- (too), pred- (before) pri- (next to),  raz- (from), s- (with), v- (in), za- (for)…

I tried to look for some kind of patterns prefix-meanings, unfortunately I couldn’t find any. Also, keep in mind that not all prefixes can be apply to root verbs.

Here’s a few examples to give you an idea:

Pisati (to write)

  • do + pisati = dopisati (to add in writing)
  • iz + pisati = izpisati (to copy out),
  • na + pisati = napisati (to write down)
  • o + pisati = opisati (to describe)
  • od + pisati = odpisati (to answer in writing)
  • po + pisati = popisati (to make an inventory)
  • pod + pisati = podpisati (to sign)
  • pre + pisati = prepisati (to copy)
  • pred + pisati = predpisati (to prescribe)
  • pri + pisati = pripisati (to make note)
  • raz + pisati = razpisati (to tender out)
  • v + pisati = vpisati (to enroll, to record)
  • za + pisati = zapisati (to write down)

Brati (to read)

  • iz + brati = izbrati (to choose)
  • na + brati = nabrati (to gather)
  • o + brati = obrati (to pick)
  • po + brati = pobrati (to pick up)
  • pre + brati = prebrati (to read through)
  • raz + brati = razbrati (to infer)

Govoriti (to talk)

  • do + govoriti = dogovoriti se (to agree on)
  • iz + govoriti = izgovoriti (to pronounce)
  • na + govoriti = nagovoriti (to address)
  • od + govoriti = odgovoriti (to answer)
  • po + govoriti = pogovoriti se (to talk)
  • pre + govoriti = pregovoriti (to persuade, to talk into)

Nesti (to carry)

  • na + nesti = nanesti (to apply)
  • ob + nesti = obnesti se (to be effective)
  • od + nesti = odnesti (to carry out)
  • pre + nesti = prenesti (to transmit)
  • pri + nesti = prinesti (to bring)
  • v + nesti = vnesti (to enter, to insert)
  • za + nesti = zanesti (to carry away)

Pustiti (to leave, to let)

  • do + pustiti = dopustiti (to allow)
  • iz + pustiti = izpustiti (to release, to let go)
  • o + pustiti = opustiti (to abandon)
  • od + pustiti = odpustiti (to forgive)
  • po + pustiti = popustiti (to slacken)
  • pre + pustiti = prepustiti (to leave, to let go)
  • raz + pustiti = razpustiti (to dissolve)
  • s + pustiti = spustiti (to let loose, to let go)
  • za + pustiti = zapustiti (to leave, to abandon)

As you’ve probably figured out, there are many many more. I’m sure that there’s are someroot verbs that interest you in particular, let me know and I will happily find the same family verbs.

And if you see some kind of patterns, please share it with me because it does make me wonder!

Shouts to Paul Steed, one of my readers, who has kindly created some quiz cards with these lists, free to use and share: Quizlet – Word families 01.

Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Slovene Modal Verbs

Modal verbs in Slovene are verbs used to express the ability, possibility or necessity of something, such as can, could, must or such. And like English, it is always the combination of two verbs.

Most of the Slovene modal verbs are used with an infinitive verbs, but some are also used with a conjugated verb.

Lahko and ne smeti, ne moči

(+) Lahko (to be able to) + conjugated verb
In Slovene, lahko means “can” or “could” and it remains the same.  It is usually used with the present tense. Also, it is always used with a conjugated verb | i.e. A lahko plavaš? → Are you able to swim?

(-) Ne smeti (to not be allowed) + infinitive verb
One opposite of lahko is ne smeti, which means”to not be allowed” or “to be forbidden“. It also has a suggestive notion such as “should not“. The verb ne smeti is conjugated and used with an infinitive verb | i.e. Ne smem jesti kruha2. → I am not allowed to eat bread ∴ I shouldn’t.

(-) Ne moči (to not be able) + infinitive verb
Another opposite of lahko is ne moči – “to not be able”, but it usually used to  indicate a physical incapacity. The verb ne moči is conjugated and used with an infinitive verb | i.e. Ne morem priti. → I (physically) cannot come.

Please note that the participle of ne moči. used in Past and Future Tense is mogel. For example: nisem mogel, ona ni mogla.

Želeti and ne želeti

(+) Želeti (to wish) + infinitive verb
In Slovene, “to wish” and “to want” are very similar and it is often expressed with the verb želeti | i.e. Želim imeti psa  → I wish/want to have a dog.

(-) Ne želiti (to not wish)+ infinitive verb
Nothing special, just the negative form of želeti.


Hoteti and ne hoteti

(+) Hoteti (to really want) + infinitive verb
The verb hoteti is used to express a very strong feeling of want. Its conjugation in the present tense is irregular | i.e. Hočem potovati na Japonsko → I really want to travel to Japan.

(-) Ne hoteti (to really not want)+ infinitive verb
The conjugation of the negative form of hoteti in the present tense is also irregular | i.e. Nočem iti na morje → I really don’t want to go to the sea.

Please note that the participle of ne hoteti. used in Past and Future Tense is also hotel. For example: nisem hotel, ona ni hotela.

Morati and ni mi treba

(+) Morati (to must, to have to) + infinitive verb
The verb morati is used to express a necessity | Vsak dan moram jesti  → Everyday I must / have to eat.

(-) Ni mi treba (It is not needed for me)+ infinitive verb
The opposite of morati is the phrase ni mijaz3 treba + infinitive verb | Ni mi treba vstati ob šestih vsak dan → It is not needed that I get up everyday at 6am.

Be careful with ni mi treba. If we analyse it a bit further:

  1. ni : negative form of biti
  2. mi : personal pronoun in Third Sklon for jaz
  3. treba : “need” and it always remains the same.

∴ the Past tense is ni mi bilo treba + infinitive verb and the Future Tense is ni bo mi treba + infinitive verb.


I hope I didn’t confused you too much with the modal verbs. As you can see, most of modal verbs are combined with an infinitive verb, except lahko. Don’t forget that ne hoteti becomes nočemAlso, do not confuse ne moči (negative form) and morati (positive form):

  • ne moči → ne morem → nisem mogel
  • morati → moram → sem moral.

If you manage to remember all those little tricks, you will be able to ace the modal verbs in no time, but of course, it takes lots of practice! If you have any questions, other tricks to share or comments, don’t hesitate and let me know!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Reflexive Verbs and Pronouns in Slovene

The general concept of reflexive verbs in grammar refers to a verb whose direct object is its subject. In Slovene, it is better to interpret it as a verb that “reflects” back to its subject (or part of its subject).

As we know, Slovene is a very precise language and skloni seems to be everywhere. with nouns, “direct object” is associated with the Fourth Sklon – Accusative, while “indirect object” is related to the Third Sklon – Dative. No need to say that reflexive pronouns are used with reflexive verbs. And reflexive pronouns are affected by skloni, but in a different way than with nouns.


Reflexive Pronouns: “Se” and “Si”

Reflexive verbs in Slovene can easily be recognized by the short word “se” or “si“, which are reflexive pronouns.

Seis in the fourth sklon.
Si is in the third sklon.

Bonus: In Slovene, some pronouns have a “short” and a “long” version.

Sebe” is the longer version of “se“.
Sebi” is the longer version of “si“.

In Slovene, not all verbs are reflexive. Some are always non-reflexive, some are always reflexive and some can be either. For example:

  • ukvarjati se4 z risanjem6– to occupy yourself with drawing
  • zapomniti si3 sklone4– to memorize declensions
  • bati se4 pajkov2  – to be afraid of spiders
  • učiti se4 slovenščino– to learn Slovene
    učiti slovenščino– to teach Slovene
  • obleči se– to dress myself up
    obleči Anno4 – to dress up Anna

As you can see, the sklon used for the reflexive pronouns is not always the same as the sklon used for the noun. PLEASE, DO NOT PANIC!!! If you understand when to use a certain sklon, then you shouldn’t have too much trouble figuring it out.

For example, the verb umiti (to wash) has few versions:  umiti, ne umiti, umiti se4and umiti si3.

  • umiti koga4/kaj4 – to wash
    The direct object is who/what ∴ the noun is in fourth sklon.
  • ne umiti (koga2/česa2) – to not wash
    The direct object is who/what, even if it’s negative ∴ the noun is in second sklon.
  • umiti se4– to wash myself
    The direct object of the verb is directly the subject ∴ the reflexive pronoun is in fourth sklon.
  • umiti si3 lase4 – to wash my hair
    The direct object of the verb is not directly the subject ∴ the reflexive pronoun is in third sklon.

    The direct object is part of the subject ∴ the noun is in fourth sklon.

It might seems a lot at once, but do not be discourage as learning Slovene takes time and practice. Also, I believe that the best way to learn Slovene is not by memorizing everything by heart (because those you will usually forget), but to understand how to use the skloni, verbs, nouns… and how they “work” together.

I hope I didn’t confuse you too much :). If you have any questions or comments, please leave me a message!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Slovene Irregular Verbs in Present Tense

In general, the conjugation of regular verbs in Slovene is quite simple to remember and apply, especially in the Present Tense, as it follows a straight forward pattern.

Irregular verbs on the other hand are a little bit more tricky and it needs some practice and memorizing.

An easy way to remember verbs conjugation in Slovene is to memorize the “jazform and simply change the ending accordingly.

Regular verbs ending with -ti, such as kuhati (to cook), -ti becomes -m, ∴ jaz kuham.

Irregular verbs, such as bati se (to be afraid), the ending is same as with regular verbs, but the first part differs from its infinitive form, ∴ jaz se bojim.

Biti (sem) and Imeti (imam)

Two of the most basics verbs that we usually learnt during the early stage of learning Slovene is biti (to be) and imeti (to have). And they are irregular.

Verbs ending with –ovati or –evati

Verbs ending with -ovati, the “ova” always becomes “uje“.

  • potrebovati (potrebujem) – to need
  • potovati (potujem) – to travel
  • svetovati (svetujem) – to advise

And 95% of the verbs ending with –evati, the “eva” also becomes “uje“.

  • končevati (končujem) – to finish
  • vključevati (vključujem) – to include

Verbs ending with –či

A common ending for irregular verbs is –či. Most frequently, the “č” of the “či” is kept and, the “i” is replaced by “e“.

  • reči (rečem) – to say
  • teči (tečem) – to run
  • vleči (vlečem) – to pull
  • obleči se (oblečem se) – to get dressed
  • peči (pečem) – to bake

Another possible ending, but less frequent is the “č” of the “či” becomes “ž” but the “i” is also replaced by “e“.

  • vreči (vržem) – to throw
  • preseči (presežem) – to exceed
  • leči (ležem) – to lie down

Verbs ending with -sati

With some verbs ending with –sati, the “sa” becomes “še“. (Notice how the s changes into š.)

  • pisati (pišem) – to write
  • plesati (plešem) – to dance
  • risati (rišem) – to draw

Irregular verbs are used everyday

Some of verbs that we frequently use everyday are also irregular, but fortunately, most of you should already be familiar with them:

  • iti (grem) – to go,
  • jesti (jem) – to eat,
  • piti (pijem) – to drink,
  • brati (berem) – to read and
  • vedeti (vem) – to know.

Some verbs you might not be as familiar with, but it would be a good idea to know about them:

  • najti (najdem) – to find
  • iskati (iščem) – to look for
  • živeti (živim) – to live
  • moči (morem) – to be able to
  • hoteti (hočem) – to want
  • pasti (padem) – to fall
  • spati (spim) – to sleep

The list of irregular verbs can go on for a while and it’s probably too much to learn everything at once. Although, with time, perseverance and practice, it will become easier.

As mentioned in previous post, one of my favorite reference for verbs is Slovenski Glagol by Rada Lečič and it also includes an nice list of irregular verbs in the Present Tense.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Perfect and Imperfect Verbs Table

Here’s a list of

  • infinitive form of Imperfect verb – Nedovršni glagol
  • infinitive form of Perfect verb – Dovršni glagol

For easier learning, I’ve put the Imperfect on the left and the Perfect on the right with their respective translation.

IMPERFECT – Nedovršni glagol PERFECT – Dovršni glagol
brati (to read) prebrati (to read, to read through)
dajati (to give) dati (to give)
delati (to do, to work) narediti (to do, to make)
dobivati (to get many times) dobiti (to get)
gledati (to watch) videti / pogledati (to see / to look at)
govoriti (to speak) reči /povedati (to say / to tell)
hoditi (to walk) shoditi (to start to walk)
Iskati (to look for, to search) poiskati (to look up)
izgubljati (to lose) izgubiti (to lose)
jemati (to take) vzeti (to take)
jesti (to eat) pojesti (to eat up)
kupovati (to buy, to purchase) kupiti (to buy, to purchase)
metati (to throw) vreči (to throw)
obiskovati (to attend, to visit) obiskati (to visit)
odhajati (to be leaving) oditi (to do, to leave)
odpuščati (to forgive) odpustiti (to forgive)
opazovati (to observe) opaziti (to notice)
padati (to fall) pasti (to fall)
peči (to bake, to roast) speči (to bake)
pisati (to write) napisati (to write down)
plačovati (to be paying) plačati (to pay)
pogovarjati se (to talk) pogovoriti se (to talk)
prihajati (to arrive, to come) priti (to come)
pripravljati (to prepare) pripraviti (to prepare)
skakati (to jump) skočiti (to jump)
spati (to sleep) zaspati (to fall asleep)
ugašati (to turn off) ugasniti (to turn off)
vabiti (to invite) povabiti (to invite)
vstajati (to rise) vstati (to rise, to stand up)
zamujati (to be late) zamuditi (to miss, to be late)
zapirati (to close, to shut) zapreti (to close, to shut)
zbujati (to rouse, to wake) zbuditi (to wake)

This list is obviously not completed. If there are verbs you would want to inquiry about, leave me a comment or a message and I will try my best to add them.

Please note that some verbs are only perfect or imperfect, while others are perfect and imperfect.

Anna.