Nouns – Neuter Exceptions

Neuter Slovene nouns end with “-e” or “-o” and follow the six grammatical cases known as skloni. Neuter exceptions have the same endings, but with some extra “add-ups”, which we will cover now.

Ending with -O

Most nouns ending in “-o” are neuter ( if it’s not masculine exceptions). You will probably recognize some of them.

When declined, “-es” is added.

  • kolo (bicycle) → Grem z kolesom6E  (I go with bicycle).
  • drevo (tree) → Imamo veliko dreves2M (We have lots of trees).
  • telo (body), slovo (farewell)
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 telo telesi telesa
Sklon 2 telesa teles teles
Sklon 3 telesu telesoma telesom
Sklon 4 telo telesi telesa
Sklon 5 telesu telesih telesih
Sklon 6 telesom telesoma telesi

When declined,  it takes a different forms and “-es” is added.

  • oko (eye) → Tim je imel poškodbe očesa4M (Tim had eyes injuries).
  • uho (ear) → esa1Mme bolijo (My ears hurt me).
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 uho esi esa
Sklon 2 esa es es
Sklon 3 esu esoma esom
Sklon 4 uho esi esa
Sklon 5 esu esih esih
Sklon 6 esom esoma esi

Ending with -E

Another ending for neuter is “-e” (again, if it’s not a masculine exceptions).

When declined, “-t” is added, usually for youths.

  • tele (calf, baby cow) → Letos imamo tri teleta4M (This year we have three calves).
  • dekle (little girl) →  V skupini so tri dekleta1M (In the group are three little girls).
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 dekle dekleti dekleta
Sklon 2 dekleta deklet deklet
Sklon 3 dekletu dekletoma dekletom
Sklon 4 dekle
dekleta
dekleti dekleta
Sklon 5 dekletu dekletih dekletih
Sklon 6 dekletom dekletoma dekleti

When the ending, “-n” is added.

  • ime (name) → Pes je brez imena2E (The dog is without a name).
  • vreme (weather) → Danes nimamo lepega vremena2E (Today we don’t have good weather).
  • pleme (tribe), breme (load), ramaž / rames (shoulder)
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 ime imeni imena
Sklon 2 imena imen imen
Sklon 3 imenu imenoma imenom
Sklon 4 ime imeni imena
Sklon 5 imenu imenih imenih
Sklon 6 imenom imenoma imeni

If compared with feminine and masculine exceptions, neuters are probably less complicated. Although, as a foreigner, learning “exceptions” can sometimes be difficult. From my point of view, the importance is not to always remember the exceptions, but to know that they exist. If you have any questions, let me know!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Nouns – Masculine Exceptions

Masculine Slovene nouns generally have a consonant ending, which follows the six grammatical cases known as skloni. Although, in some cases, the nouns don’t end with a consonant, but they are also masculine.

International Words

Nouns that you might recognized without knowing Slovene, often “borrowed” from another language and don’t end with a consonant.

When declined, nothing “extra” is added. 

  • avto (car) → Grem z avtom6  (I go with car).
  • kino (movie theater) → Sem v kinu5 (I’m at the movie theater).
  • radio (radio) → Sem brez radia (I’m without radio).
  • finale (final), disko (disco)

When declined, “-j” is added.

  • taksi (taxi) → Sem v taksiju5 (I’m in the taxi).
  • hobi (hobby) → Nimam hobija2 (I don’t have hobby).
  • kanu (canoe) → Grem z kanujem6 (I go with canoe).
  • iglu (igloo), abonma (subscription), bife (bar), nivo (level), kuli (ballpoint pen)

Ending with -R

In general, masculine nouns end with a consonant. Many masculine nouns end with the consonant “-r” are considered as exceptions.

When declined, “-j” is added.

  • papir (paper) → Nimam papirja2 (I don’t have paper).
  • denar (money) → Imam težave z denarjem6 (I have problems with money).
  • some people: kuhar (cook), kolesar (biker), gozdar (forester)

When the ending is “-er“, the “e” disappears.

  • veter (wind) → Danes je brez vetra2 (Today is without wind).
  • meter (meter) → To je dva metra1 visoko (This is two meters tall).
  • Peter, Koper, Alexander

Ending with -E, -I or -O

Some masculine nouns, mostly names, can be confused with neutral gender as the ending is not a consonant but  “-e”, “-i” or “-o”.

Masculine nouns ending with “-e”, when declined “-t” is added.

  • e (father) → Grem z očetom6 v trgovino (I go with father to the store).
  • Tone, Jože, Anže, Ažbe, Jure, Bine

Masculine nouns ending with “-i”, when declined “-j” is added. 

  • i (father) → Grem z očijem6 v trgovino (I go with father to the store).
  • Franci, Timi, Edi
Oče and oči both can mean father or grandfather, depending on the region.

And oči can also mean oko (eye) in plural, which has a different ending.

Masculine names ending with “-o”, when declined nothing “extra” is added. 

  • Marko → Poročila sem se z Markom6 (I’m married with Marko).
  • Branko, Zlatko, Teo, Stanko, Miro

Ending with -A

As we know, endings in “-a” is often used with feminine nouns, but some masculine names also end with “-a”.

When declined, it has two possible endings : no change or as a feminine noun.

  • Miha → Šla sem brez Miha / Mihe2 (I went without Miha).
  • Luka, Jaka, Grega

Bonus Endings

For some short masculine nouns, when declined (all skloni), an “-ov” is added in dual and plural forms.

  • grad (castle) → V Evropi so veliko gradov2(m) (There are a lot of castles in Europe).
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 grad gradova gradovi
Sklon 2 gradu*
grada
gradov gradov
Sklon 3 gradu gradovoma gradovom
Sklon 4 grad gradova gradove
Sklon 5 gradu gradovih gradovih
Sklon 6 gradom gradovoma gradovi
  • sok (juice) → Danes sem popila dva sokova4(d) (Today I drank two juices).
  • grob (grave), volk (wolf), most (bridge), glas (voice), gozd (forest)
*And if you want to be extra classy, some short words in Second Sklon, the singular form has two versions: one is as usual and the other, the ”-a” becomes ”-u”.

  • Some that adds ”-ov”: grad (castle), glas (voice), most (bridge).
  • Some that doesn’t add ”-ov”: led (ice), med (honey)

Some masculine nouns for ”people”, when declined in First Sklon, the plural form has two versions: one is as usual and the other, a ”-j” is added.

  • kmet (farmer) → Tam so trije kmeti / kmetje1(m) (There are three farmers).
  • študent (student), gost (guest), sosed (neighbor), gospod (mister).

Learning “exceptions” is never easy, but it’s like going the extra mile! Determination and practice! If you have any questions or other words that you would like to add-in, let me know!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Phrases – To Know […]

Usually when you translate verbs from one language to another, you will end up with a direct translation. Although, an interesting verb in Slovene is the verb “to know” in English, because depending  on the context, it can be translated into three Slovene versions.

Vedeti – to know

The verb vedeti (to know) is used for common knowledge or things that can be learnt through information or observation.

  • Vem, da je Slovenija v Evropi5. (I know that Slovenia is in Europe).
  • A veste koliko je 5 krat 5 (Do you know how much is 5 times 5)?
  • Vem, katera kavarna ima najboljšo kavo4 (I know which coffee shop has the best coffee).
  • Veliko veste o politiki5(You know a lot about politics).

Znati – to know

The verb znati (to know) is used for knowledge, like a language or a skill.

  • Znam slovensko4angleško4, Francosko4 in Kitajsko4.
    (I know Slovene, English, French and Chinese).
  • Pika zna plavati, kuhati in voziti (Pika knows to swim, to cook and to drive).

Poznati – to know

The verb poznati (to know) is used when you know about someone or something.

  • Poznam to pesem4 (I know this song).
  • A poznate Martino4 ki živi v Kranju5 (Do you know Martina that lives in Kranj)?
  • Tina veliko potuje in pozna veliko držav (Tina travels a lot and knows many countries).

Bonus : Spoznati – to meet, to get to know, to realize

The verb spoznati (to meet, to get to know, to realize) can be confusing because it contains the verb znati and poznati, but has a different meaning.

  • Tilen in Maja sta spoznala na jezikovnem tečaju5 (Tilen and Maja met at the course).
  • Karl hoče spoznati Katjo4 (Karl wants to get to know Katja).
  • Jan je spoznal, da voziti med prometni konici5 ni dobra ideja. (Jan realized that driving during rush hour is not a good idea).

When you’re not sure which Slovene verbs to use, always remember the context!  If you have any questions, feel free to ask me!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian IdiomsSlovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Slovene Irregular Participle for Past and Future Tense

As we know, participles are an essential part of Past Tense and Future Tense. If the participle, which is “root of verb + L_“,  is regular, then it is very simple, but if the participle falls into the irregular group, then you will have to remember. Also, keep in mind that irregular verbs in Present Tense don’t always equal irregular participle.

Past and Future Tense

A quick reminder of the Past Tense and Future Tense “formula”.

Past Tense = To Be (Present Tense) + Root of Verb + L_
Future Tense = To Be (Future Tense) + Root of Verb + L_

Regular participles of verbs ending with -ti, such as kuhati (to cook),
-ti becomes l_, sem / bom kuhal.

Verbs ending with -iti (to go)

  • itiel) – to go
  • priti (prišel) – to come
  • oditi (odšel) – to leave
  • preiti (prešel) – to go over
  • uiti (ušel) – to escape
  • zaiti (zašel) – to stray
  • raziti se (razšel se) – to break up

Verbs ending with -jesti (to eat)

  • jesti (jedel) – to eat
  • pojesti (pojedel) – to come
  • najesti (najedel) – to appease one’s hunger

Verbs ending with -pasti (to fall)

  • pasti (padel) – to fall
  • napasti (napadel) – to assault
  • odpasti (odpadel) – to be cancelled
  • propasti (propadel) – to collapse
  • razpasti (razpadel) – to disintegrate
  • zapasti (zapadel) – to lapse

Verbs ending with -nesti (to carry)

  • nesti (nešel) – to fall
  • obnesti (odnešel) – to assault
  • odnesti (odnešel) – to carry away
  • prinesti (prinešel) – to bring
  • vnesti (vnešel) – to insert
  • nanesti (nanešel) – to apply

Verbs ending with –reti (not a verb!)

  • odpreti (odprl) – to open
  • zapreti (zaprl) – to close
  • zavreti (zavrl) – to brake
  • scvreti (scvrl) – to fry
  • umreti (umrl) – to die
  • zadreti se (zadrl se) – to yell

Verbs ending with –či

  • reči (rekel) – to say
  • peči (pekel) – to bake
  • teči (tekel) – to run
  • obleči (oblekel) – to get dressed
  • odreči (odrekel) – to give up
  • vleči (vlekel) – to pull
  • vreči (vrgel) – to throw
  • streči (stregel) – to serve
  • doseči (dosegel) – to reach
  • leči (legel) – to lie
  • moči (mogel) – to be able to
  • preseči (presegel) – to exceed

And others…

  • najti (našel) – to find
  • gristi (grizel) – to bite
  • krasti (kradel) – to steal
  • tepsti (tepel) – to fight
  • zmesti (zmedel) – to confuse
  • bosti (bodel) – to sting
  • splesti (spletel) – to knit
  • zebsti (zeblo) – to feel cold
  • vesti se (vedel se) – to behave
  • navesti (navedel) – to quote

I’m sure you are already familiar with some of the irregular participle. As you can see,  they follow a certain pattern, but not always. Most of them you will still need to memorize, but same as always, the more you will use them, the easier you will remember! 🙂 If you have any questions or any that you would like me to add, let me know!

Good thing to note is that the irregular verbs biti and imeti have regular participle; bil and imel.

And remember that biti in Past Tense is sem bil, but in Future Tense, it is just bom.

Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

 

Slovene Adverbs in General

Adverbs, known as prislov, are words that are used to modify an adjective, a verb and even another adverb. Those words are not declined like a noun would be, therefore they do no change form.

Although, in some cases, depending on the situation, different adverbs might be used. By asking some basic but specific questions, it can help identify which adverb to use.

Time (Cašovni Prislov)

For adverbs of time, the question word used is kdaj, which means “when”.

  • danes (today) / včeraj (yesterday) / jutri (tomorrow)
  • zjutraj (in the morning), (zvečer (in the evening) / ponoči (at night)
  • dopoldan (forenoon) / popoldan (afternoon)
  • zgodaj (early) / pozno (late)
  • takoj (immediately) / zdaj (now) / potem (later on)
  • vedno (always) / nikoli (never)
  • pozimi (Winter) / spomladi (Spring) / poleti (Summer) / jeseni (Autumn)

For example,

  1. Zgodaj ste. → You are early.
  2. Pridem takoj. →  I’m coming immediately.

Amount (Merni Prislov)

For adverbs for amount, the question word asked is koliko , which means “how much, how many”.

  • veliko (a lot) / malo (a little)
  • več (more) / manj (less)
  • preveč (too much) / premalo (too little, not enough)
  • dovolj (enough)
  • toliko (this much)
  • nekaj (some)
When using “quantify” a noun, the second sklon is being used.

Here’s how to express quantities in Slovene.

For example,

  1. Dovolj imam! → I have enough!
  2. Sem kupila veliko kruha2. → I bought a lot of bread.

Place (Krajevni Prislov)

For adverbs of place, two questions words can be used kam and kje, both means “where”.

Kam is used for a destination, like kam greste (where are you going). Kje is used for a location, like kje ste (where are you). Depending on which question is  adverb used might be different.

KAM? KJE? Translation
sem tukaj here
tja tam there
drugam drugje elsewhere
domov doma home
ven zunaj out, outside
noter notri inside
naprej spredaj ahead
nazaj zadaj back
gor zgoraj up
dol spodaj down

And some adverbs remains the same.

  • daleč (far) / blizu (close)
  • okoli (around)
  • vmes (in between)

For example,

  1. Grem ven. → I go out.
  2. Zunaj sem. → I am outside.
  3. Sem šla daleč. → I went far.

Manner (Načinovni Prislov)

For adverbs of manner is probably one of the most used adverb. The question word used is kako, which means “how”. It is used to describe how an verb is done.

Do not confuse with adjective, which is used to describe how a noun is. Therefore, an adjective is declined, but an adverb is not.

Here’s about Slovene adjectives in general.
  • lepo (nicely) / grdo (uglily)
  • hitro (quickly) / počasno (slowly)
  • dobro (goodly) / slabo (badly)
  • zanimivo (interestingly) / dolgočasno (boringly)
  • močno (strongly) / šibko (weakly)
  • glasno (loudly) / tiho (quietly)

For example,

  1. Lepo govorite slovensko. → You speak Slovene nicely.
  2. Hitro je šel v službo → He went quickly to work.

Just as in English, the position of the adverb in a sentence is not fixed, it always depends on the context. If you have any questions or adverbs that you would like to add to the list, let me know!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Phrases – To Be […]

The verb “biti” (to be) is one of essential verb to know in practically every language. It can be used alone or paired with an adjective – the possibilities are  endless. Depending on the situation, most precisely skloni also apply.

Verb Biti – To Be

Here’s a quick review of the verb biti (to be) in Present Tense, Past Tense and Future Tense, as well as in its negation form.

BITI  Present Tense Past Tense Future Tense
Jaz sem / nisem sem / nisem bom / ne bom
Ti si / nisi si / nisi boš / ne boš
On, Ona, Ono je / ni se / ni bo / ne bo
Midva, Midve/Medve sva / nisva sva / nisva bova / ne bova
Vidva, Vidve, Vedve sta / nista sta / nista bosta / ne bosta
Onadva, Onidve sta / nista sta / nista bosta / ne bosta
Mi, Me smo / nismo smo / nismo bomo / ne bomo
Vi, Ve ste / niste ste / niste boste / ne boste
Oni, One so / niso so / niso bodo / ne bodo*
*Please note The verb biti for “oni” has two possible endings: bodo or bojo.

1. Biti + [Noun]1

When the verb biti is used alone with a noun,  the First Sklon applies.

For example,

  • Jaz sem [Anna]1  (I am Anna).
  • Matt, Lina in Jan niso [sodelavci]1 (Matt, Lina and Jan are not coworkers).

2. Biti + Adjective

The verb to be is also used with adjective to describe a state.

Such as,

  • Biti lačen / žejen (To be hungry / thirsty)
  • Biti pozen / točen (To be late / on time)
  • Biti prehlajen  (To have a cold)
  • Biti zadovoljen / razočaran (To be satisfied / disappointed)
  • Biti vesel / žalosten (To be happy)
  • Biti poročen / samski (To be married / single)
  • Biti utrujen (To be tired)
When the e is underlined, it means that when declined, the “e” is removed.

Remember that the following adjective has to correspond with the subject. i.e. Otroci so lačni  (The children are hungry).

3. Biti + Adjective + (Preposition) + [Noun]X

Then to make the phrase more completed, a noun can be added. Depending on the situation, there might be or not be a preposition, as some skloni aren’t used with preposition.

  • Biti nor na […]4 (To be crazy about chocolate)
    Sem nora na čokolado (I’m crazy about chocolate).
  • Biti znan po […]5 (To be well-known for)
    Bled je znan po kremšniti (Bled is well-known for cream cake).
  • Biti povezan z/s […]6 (To be linked with)
    Sladkor je povezan z debelostjo (Sugar is linked with obesity).
  • Biti zaljubljen v […]4  (To be in love with)
    Miranda je zaljubljena v sodelavca (Miranda is in love with her coworker).
  • Biti tesno soroden z/s  […]6  (To be closely related to)
    Nemšcina je tesno sorodna z Angleščino (German is closely related to English).
  • Biti prepričan o […]5 (To be convinced of)
    Miha je prepričan o svojem delu (Miha is convinced of his work).
  • Biti naklonjen  […]3 (To be in favor of)
    Milan je naklonjen elektronskim položnicam (Milan is in favor of electronic billings).
  • Biti izpostavljen […]3 (To be exposed to)
    Moderni otroci so izpostavljeni tehnologiji (Modern children are exposed to technologies).

What’s important to remember is the context, as well as preposition that would dictates which sklon to use. If there’s other examples that you would want to share, or have any questions, please let me know!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Imperative Mood in Slovene

Regular Slovene verbs are usually quite simple and straightforward to apply and used. An interesting aspect of verbs is the imperative grammatical mood – velelnik. To give a command or an order, such as “come here” or “let’s go”. (Which is quite handy and essential to know when you have young children!)

As we know, infinitive verbs in Slovene are divided into different categories of endings and it affects the endings of its imperative form. The best way to remember it is to compare it with the “jaz” form in present tense.

For most  infinitive form ends with -TI

POVABITI (to invite) jaz povabim povabi / povabite
PRODATI (to sell) jaz prodam prodaj / prodajte
KAZATI (to show) jaz kažem kaži / kažite
POTOVATI (to travel) jaz potujem potuj / potujte

As you can see

  • IM → –I
  • AM → –AJ
  • EM → –I
  • (U)JEMJ
The imperative mood is usually used with the second person. For the plural form, it can’t be any simpler, you just add “-te” at the end.

For infinitive verbs that ends with -ČI

TEČI (to run) jaz tečem teci / tecite
REČI (to say) jaz rečem reci / recite
PEČI (to bake) jaz pečem peci / pecite

As you can see, the Č becomes C.

  • ČICI

For infinitive form ends with -TI, but that are irregular

BITI (to be) jaz sem bodi / bodite
ITI (to go) jaz grem pojdi / pojdite
JESTI (to eat) jaz jem jej / jejte
VEDETI (to know) jaz vem vedi / vediti
IMETI (to have) jaz imam imej / imejte
PRITI (to come) jaz pridem pridi / pridite
PITI (to drink) jaz pijem pij / pijte
OSTATI (to remain) jaz ostanem ostani / ostanite
GLEDATI (to watch, to look) jaz gledam glej / glejte
STATI (to stand) jaz stojim stoj / stojte
POVEDATI (to tell) jaz povem povej / povejte
IMETI (to have) jaz imam imej / imejte
VZETI (to take) jaz vzamem vzemi / vzemite
NAJETI (to hire) jaz najamem najemi / najemite
POKLICATI (to call) jaz pokličem pokliči / pokličite
POJETI (to sing) jaz pojem poj / pojte

The endings for irregular verbs do not follow a specific “pattern”, therefore you need to learn them by heart…


These are just short lists of verbs in the imperative mood. Regular verbs are not too difficult, but irregular ones can be quite tricky.  Practice makes perfect – the more you will use them, the easier it will be!

One reference that I can totally recommend for verbs is  Slovenski Glagol by Rada Lečič. If you have any questions or comments, do let me know! Two kids keep me busy, but I will always try my best to get back at you, as fast as possible! 🙂


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

 

Nouns – Second Feminine Declension, Part 3

In general, feminine nouns in Slovene end with -a, but there are some exceptions. Feminine nouns ending with –ev use the first feminine declension. Second feminine declension – druga ženska sklanjatev, is divided into three sub-groups:

Second Feminine Declension, short nouns

Some short nouns, such as luč (light), noč (night), sol (salt), pot (path) are feminine. There are no pattern or specific endings, so you need to learn them.

If you know the “second-second” feminine declension with ending with -en/-em/el then learning the “third-second” should be fairly easy. Pay attention to the text in color.

Here’s the table of Skloni with feminine noun ending with –en/-em/el:

2.2  ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 lepa pesem lepi pesmi lepe pesmi
 SKLON 2 lepe pesmi lepih pesmi lepih pesmi
 SKLON 3 lepi pesmi lepima pesmima lepim pesmim
 SKLON 4 lepo pesem lepi pesmi lepe pesmi
 SKLON 5 lepi pesmi lepih pesmih lepih pesmih
 SKLON 6 lepo pesmijo lepima pesmima lepimi pesmimi

Here’s the table of Skloni with short feminine noun :

2.3  ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 hitra pot hitri poti hitre poti
 SKLON 2 hitre poti hitrih poti hitrih poti
 SKLON 3 hitri poti hitrima potema hitrim potem
 SKLON 4 hitro pot hitri poti hitre poti
 SKLON 5 hitri poti hitrih poteh hitrih poteh
 SKLON 6 hitro potjo hitrima potema hitrimi potmi

❤ A simplified version of the ending:

 2.2 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -Ø -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 2 -E -I -IH -I -IH -I
 SKLON 3  -I -I -IMA –IMA -IM –IM
 SKLON 4 -O -Ø -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 5 -I – I -IH -IH -IH –IH
 SKLON 6 -O –IJO -IMA –IMA -IMI –IMI

and

 2.3 ž. skl. Ednina/Singular Dvojina/Dual Množina/Plural
 SKLON 1 -A -Ø -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 2 -E -I -IH -I -IH -I
 SKLON 3  -I -I -IMA –EMA -IM –EM
 SKLON 4 -O -Ø -I -I -E -I
 SKLON 5 -I – I -IH -IH -IH –EH
 SKLON 6 -O –JO -IMA –EMA -IMI –MI

If we compare the two tables:

  • the dual and plural form in third and sixth case, the –I becomes –E and
  • the singular and plural form in sixth case, the –I is removed.

The declension of adjectives remain the same as in “normal” declension.


There is no specific ending for short feminine nouns that are declined by the “third-second” feminine declension, so here is a short list:

dlan (palm), jed (dish, meal), klet (cellar, basement), klop (bench), kost (bone), kri (blood), moč (strength), peč (stove), pomoč (help), prst (finger), skrb (care, worry), smer (direction), smet (garbage), stran (side, page), stvar (thing), utež (weigth), vas (village)…


Feminine declensions can be quite overwhelming at first, that’s why you need to learn them step by step and always start with what you already know. If you have any questions or comments – be sure to let me know – parenthood keeps me busy but I will try to reply as soon as possible 🙂

Update – here is my Cheat sheet “Table of First and Second Feminine Declension“. More can be found under Learning Materials.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Colloquial Slovene – Vocabulary

At school or in books, standard Slovene – knjižna slovenščina is taught with the proper grammar and vocabulary. This literary version of the language is found in newspapers, on TV and such. On the other hand, colloquial Slovene – neknjižna slovenščina, is used in familiar and informal conversation or online chat. Sometimes, you will notice that it sounds like it was borrowed from another language, such as German or English.

I noticed that while chit-chatting with my in-laws, family, neighbors, friends, family in Slovenia, they used some words, po domače (at home), that I wouldn’t understand right away. Now I’m using them everyday.


Cuk’r
means sladkor (sugar) | i.e. Cuk’r mi je padel (My sugar is dropping).

Friš’n
means svež (fresh) | i.e. Vsak dan jem friš’n kruh (Everyday I eat fresh bread).

Cajt
means čas (time) | i.e. A ‘maš cajt (Do you have time)?

Fajn
means lepo (nice, pretty) | i.e. Fajn se ‘mejte (Have a good day).

Jest
means jaz (I) i.e. Jest ne jem torte (I do not eat cake).

Južna
means obrok (meal) | i.e. Južna je že na mizi (The meal is already on the table).

Laufat
means teči (to run) | i.e.  Pes laufa zunaj (The dog is running outside).

Kofe
means kava (coffee) | i.e. Kdo bo kofe (Who will have a coffee)?

Merkati
means paziti (to look after) | i.e. A lahko merkaš Nino za pet minut (Can you look after Nina for 5 minutes)?

Deka
means volnena odeja (woolen blanket) | i.e. Spim brez deke (I sleep without blanket).

Glih
means ravno (just, exactly) | i.e. Sem glih prišla domov (I just came home).

Žleht
means hudoben (malicious, wicked, naughty) | i.e.  Ona ima žleht jezik (She has a wicked tongue).

Štala
means hlev (stall) | i.e. Krave so v štali (The cows are in the stall).

Nucati
means potrebovati, rabiti (to need) | i.e. Kaj nucaš (What do you need)?

Župa
means juha (soup) | i.e. Danes sem jedla govejo župo (Today I ate beef soup).

Uštimati se
means urediti se (to arrange yourself) | i.e. Za zmenek se bom lepo uštimala (For my date I will arrange myself prettily).

Zmartran
means utrujen (tired) | i.e. Danes sem zmartrana (Today I am tired).

Šporget
means štedilnik na trda goriva (wood-burning stove) | i.e. Doma imamo šporget  (We have a wood-burning stove at home).

Gužva
means gneča (terrible crowd) | i.e.  Na sejemu je bila gužva (There was a terrible crowd at the fair).


Added by readers 🙂

flaša”steklenica (bottle); šalca”skodelica (cup); štenge”stopnice (stairs); rampe”zapornice (railway gate); lojtra” – lestev (ladder), šajtrga”samokolnica (wheelbarrow)


This is just a short list, I’m sure that there are a lot more po domače words.If you can think of any, please let me (and others) know via comments! Knowing about them (and integrating them) is an excellent way to converse informally with Slovenians! But do keep in mind about the standard Slovene as well.

Please note that I live near Tržič, which is close to the Austrian border, therefore, many of the words are inspired by German.


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.

Homonyms in Slovene

Just like English or any language, Slovene also has some homonyms, enakozvožnice – words with same spelling or pronunciation but different meaning. It can be quite tricky and confusing at the beginning, especially when trying to expand your vocabulary, but if you think it that way: it’s like to kill two (or more) birds with one stone!


Kot
1. corner, angle | i.e. Stol je v kotu(The chair is at the corner).
2. like | i.e. Tiha kot miš (Quiet like a mouse).

Jezik
1. language | i.e. Koliko jezikov2 govorite (How many languages do you speak)?
2. tongue | i.e. Kača ima dolg jezik4 (Snake has long tongue).
It is the similar in French.

Klop
1. bench | i.e. Sedim na klopi5 (I’m sittng on the bench).
2. tick | i.e. Pazi se klopov2 (Beware of ticks)!

Metuljček
1. little butterfly | i.e. Vidim lepe metuljčke4 (I see pretty little butterflies).
2. bowtie | i.e. Janez nosi metuljček4 vsak dan (Janez wears a bowtie everyday).

“Je”
1. is | i.e. Žan je prijazen (Žan is nice).
2. eats | i.e. Marko je pico4 (Marko eats pizza).
It is written the same, but the pronunciation is different

Čelo
1. forehead | i.e. Ema ima buško4 na čelu5 (Ema has a bump on her forehead).
2. violoncello | i.e. Anita igra čelo4 (Anita plays violoncello).

Tečaj
1. course | i.e. Grem na tečaj4 slovenščine2 v Ljubljani5 (I go to Slovene course in Ljubljana).
2. exchange rate | Banka ima menjalniški tečaj4 (The bank has exchange rate).
3. pole | i.e. Božiček živi na severnem tečaju5 (Santa Claus lives in North Pole).


Added by readers 🙂

Kopati – 1. to bathe 2. to dig
Hotel 
-1. the building 2. masculine and singular participle for past and future tense.


These  are just a few examples of Slovene homonyms that I can think of at the moment. I am certain that there are way more – if you can think of any, share them with me in comments and I will add them!


Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,
Anna.