Slovene Verbs to Nouns

A fun way to enrich your vocabulary is to know how to convert Slovene verbs into nouns! It might seems a little random at first, but there are actually guidelines that can help you remember!

In general, it will be related to the verb or the noun endings.

One of the most commonly seen ending for Slovene verbs to nouns is -enje and it applies to different verb endings:

Verbs ending with -iti

  • iti se (to learn) – enje (study, learning)
  • kolesariti (to bike) – kolesarjenje* (cycling)
  • dovoliti (to allow, to permit) – dovoljenje* (permission)

Verbs ending with -eti

  • živeti (to live) – življenje (life)*
  • hiteti (to hurry) – hitenje (haste)
  • sedeti (to sit) – sedenje (seat)
  • leteti (to fly) – letenje (flight)*

Verbs ending with -sti

  • vesti (to embroider) – vezenje (embroidery)*
  • plesti (to knit) – pletenje (knitting)*
  • gristi (to bite) – grizenje (bite)*

Verbs ending with -či

  • striči (to cut hair) – striženje (haircut)*

On the other hand, one of the most common ending for Slovene verbs is -iti and the nouns have different endings:

Nouns ending with -ba

  • telovaditi (to work out) – telovadba (gymnastics)
  • ponuditi (to offer) – ponudba (offer)
  • spremeniti (to change, to modify) – sprememba (change)*
  • odrediti (to decree ) – odredba (order, decree)

Nouns ending with ja

  • vaditi (to practise) – vaja (exercise)
  • hoditi (to walk) – hoja (walk)

Nouns ending with -nja

  • voziti (to drive) – vožnja (ride)*
  • prositi (to ask) – prošnja (request)*

Nouns ending with -itev

  • rešiti (to solve) – rešitev (solution)
  • vrniti (to return) – vrnitev (return)
  • ločiti (to separate) – ločitev (separation)

There are other endings that follow a certain “pattern”.

Verbs ending with -ati becomes -anje

  • plavati (to swim) – plavanje (swim, swimming)
  • smučati (to ski) – smučanje (skiing)
  • potovati (to travel) – potovanje (travel, travelling)
  • oblikovati (to design) – oblikovanje (design)
  • tekmovati (to compete) – tekmovanje (competition)

Verbs ending with -ti becomes -tje

  • peti (to sing) – petje (singing)
  • piti (to drink) – pitje (drink)

And other endings.

Nouns endings with -ek

  • začeti (to start) – začetek (beginning)
  • dogoditi se (to happen) – dogodek (event)

No ending

  • teči (to run) – tek (race)
  • sprehoditi (to take a walk) – sprehod (promenade, walk)
  • oditi (to go, to leave) – odhod (departure)
  • lagati (to lie) – laž (lie)

Of course, there are many more examples and it will be difficult to remember all of them at once. But by knowing that it is possible to group them up, it should be easier to learn them – plus it is very fun and useful way to expand your Slovene vocabulary!

Hope you enjoyed! If you have any questions or comments, please let me know via comment!

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Reported Speech in Slovene

Reported speech is quite simple in Slovene. A good example as to how it is used, would be: the teacher says something and afterward, a fellow student asks you what did the teacher and you would tell him by using reported speech.

Different punctuation will have different reported speech.

Declarative Sentence – Trdilna Poved

Sentence that ends with a period ( . ) is a declarative sentence. It is used to formulate a fact, an opinion, an feeling and much more. To report a declarative sentence, the word “da” is used.

For example,
Domen : “Vesel sem.” (Domen : “I am happy.”)
Domen pravi, da je vesel. (Domen said that he is happy.)

The verb praviti (to say, to tell) can be replaced by similar verbs, such as

  • reči (to say)
  • povedati (to tell)
  • dejati (to say, to tell)
  • odgovoriti (to answer)

For example,
Peter : “Pes je lačen.” (Peter : “The dog is hungry.”)
Peter je rekel, da je pes lačen. (Peter said that the dog is hungry.)

Interrogative Sentence – Vprašalna Poved

Sentence that ends with a question mark ( ? ) is an interrogative sentence. Obviously, it is used to ask questions. To report an interrogative sentence, a question word is used.

For example,
Mina : “Ali ste lačni?” (Mina : “Are you hungry?”)
Mina vpraša, ali/če smo lačni. (Mina asks if we are hungry.)

Depending on the context, different question words can be used, such as

  • kdo (who)
  • kdaj (when)
  • kje (where)

For example,
Teresa : “Kdaj pridete?” (Teresa : “When are you coming?”)
Teresa vpraša, kdaj pridemo. (Teresa asks when are we coming.)

Requesting, Commanding Sentence – Velelna Poved

Sentence that expresses a request or a command can end with an exclamation mark ( ! ) or a period ( . ), it all depends on the tone. To report requesting or commanding sentence, the word “naj” is used.

For example,
Mami : “Pospravi igrače!” (Mommy : “Clean your toys!”)
Mami mi je rekla, naj pospravim igrače . (Mommy told me to clean your toys.)

Depending on the tone, the verb reči (to say) can be replaced by other verbs, such as

  • svetovati (to advise)
  • prositi (to ask)

For example,
Učitelj : “Prosim, pospravi igrače.” (Teacher : “Please, clean your toys.”)
Učitelj me je prosil, naj pospravim igrače. (The teacher asked me to clean my toys.)

Reported speech can be really fun to use and they are also very easy to practice. Once you mastered it, you will be able to express yourself more freely! If you have any questions, don’t hesitate and let me know!

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Conjunctions in Slovene

Same as in English, conjunctions – known as vezniki, are used in Slovene to connect clauses or sentences in a way that they would make senses together. These words do not change form, and are not affected by gender, numbers or cases.

Conjunctions in Slovene are divided into two groups : priredni (coordinating) and podredni (subordinating). Depending on the context, they can be put at the beginning or in the middle.

Coordinating – Priredni Vezniki

Coordinating conjunctions are used to connect two clauses that are grammatically equal, like two nouns, two verbs or two independent clauses…

  • In (and) , ter (then)
    Moram kupiti kruh in mleko ter sir – I have to buy bread and milk then cheese.
  • Samo / le (only)
    Vsi jejo torto, samo Tina ne – All eat cake, only Tina doesn’t.
  • Ampak / toda / vendar (but, however)
    Miha nima brata, ampak ima sestro – Miha doesn’t have a brother but has a sister.
  • Kot (like)
    Zame si kot sestra – You are like a sister to me.
  • Ali (or)
    Gremo na desno ali na levo – We go right or left?
  • Torej / zato (therefore)
    Mira je noseča, torej ne pije alkohola – Mira is pregnant, therefore she doesn’t drink alcohol.

Subordinating – Podredni Vezniki

Subordinating conjunctions are used to connect a subordinating clause – a clause that cannot stand alone.

  • Ko (when/as)
    Jedli bodo, ko bodo lačni – They will eat when they will be hungry.
  • Ker (because)
    Rada jem temno čokolado, ker je grenka – I like to eat dark chocolate because it’s bitter.
  • Kar (since)Kako dolgo je bilo, kar si šel v šolo – How long has it been since you went to school?
  • Da (that)
    Recimo, da  imaš prav – Let’s say that you are right.
  • Če (if, in case)
    Če imaš preveč časa, lahko študiraš slovenščino – If you have too much time, you can study Slovene.
  • Čeprav (Although, though)
    Prišel je, čeprav pozno – He came, although late.

Multi-Words Conjunctions

Sometimes, a combination of conjunctions are treated as a whole – without a comma between them.

  • Namesto da (instead of)
    Namesto da bi ostal zunaj, lahko prideš noter – Instead of staying outside, you can come inside.
  • Zato ker (because)
    Zato ker nisem pričakovala, sem bila res presenečna – Because I was not expecting, I got really surprised.
  • Kljub temu / kljub temu da (despite that / despite the fact that)
    Kljub temu da je bilo veliko snega, sem šla v službo – Despite the fact there was a lot of snow, I went to work.
  • Medtem ko (while)
    Medtem ko otroci spijo, kuham kosilo – While the children are sleeping, I’m cooking lunch.
  • Potem ko (after)
    Potem ko je Tilen naredil domače naloge, je šel domov – After Tilen did his homework, he went home.

It might seems a lot a first, but there are actually more… 😛 Do not panic, just take it one at the time. Conjunctions are actually kind of fun to use as it helps connecting clauses together. It is actually a very good practice for your Slovene! If you have any questions, or others conjunctions that you would like me to add, just let me know!

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Punctuation in Slovene

How to use punctuation – ločilo, is pretty obvious, as it is the same in most language. But the main problem is how to say them… Personally, I think that it is very important to know how to say punctuation – and soon you will know why.

Here’s a little anecdote from my English class when I was a child.

So, it was a nice sunny day and it was also dictation day… My understanding of English was not as great back then, and I could remember was hearing the teacher saying mid-sentence “comma” and “comma“… Naive as I was… I wrote down “comma” every single time.

Of course, afterward, I realized that “comma” was not an exact word in the sentence, but a punctuation.

Therefore, to avoid embarrassment during dictation… Here they are:

  • Pika → period ( . )
  • Vprašaj → question mark ( ? )
  • Klicaj → exclamation point ( ! )
  • Vejica → comma ( , )
  • Podpičje → semicolon ( ; )
  • Dvopičje → colon ( : )
  • Narekovaj → quotation marks ( » «,  „  “ )
  • Tri pike → ellipses ( … )
  • Pomišljaj → dash( – )
  • Vezaj → hyphen ( – )
  • Oklepaji → parentheses, brakets ( (   ), [   ] )

Punctuation names might not seem very important, but they are actually crucial, especially during dictation! So, if you do have the spare time, do try to learn them! If you have any questions or comments, let me know!

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Nouns – Neuter Exceptions

Neuter Slovene nouns end with “-e” or “-o” and follow the six grammatical cases known as skloni. Neuter exceptions have the same endings, but with some extra “add-ups”, which we will cover now.

Ending with -O

Most nouns ending in “-o” are neuter ( if it’s not masculine exceptions). You will probably recognize some of them.

When declined, “-es” is added.

  • kolo (bicycle) → Grem z kolesom6E  (I go with bicycle).
  • drevo (tree) → Imamo veliko dreves2M (We have lots of trees).
  • telo (body), slovo (farewell)
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 telo telesi telesa
Sklon 2 telesa teles teles
Sklon 3 telesu telesoma telesom
Sklon 4 telo telesi telesa
Sklon 5 telesu telesih telesih
Sklon 6 telesom telesoma telesi

When declined,  it takes a different forms and “-es” is added.

  • oko (eye) → Tim je imel poškodbe očesa4M (Tim had eyes injuries).
  • uho (ear) → esa1Mme bolijo (My ears hurt me).
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 uho esi esa
Sklon 2 esa es es
Sklon 3 esu esoma esom
Sklon 4 uho esi esa
Sklon 5 esu esih esih
Sklon 6 esom esoma esi

Ending with -E

Another ending for neuter is “-e” (again, if it’s not a masculine exceptions).

When declined, “-t” is added, usually for youths.

  • tele (calf, baby cow) → Letos imamo tri teleta4M (This year we have three calves).
  • dekle (little girl) →  V skupini so tri dekleta1M (In the group are three little girls).
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 dekle dekleti dekleta
Sklon 2 dekleta deklet deklet
Sklon 3 dekletu dekletoma dekletom
Sklon 4 dekle
dekleti dekleta
Sklon 5 dekletu dekletih dekletih
Sklon 6 dekletom dekletoma dekleti

When the ending, “-n” is added.

  • ime (name) → Pes je brez imena2E (The dog is without a name).
  • vreme (weather) → Danes nimamo lepega vremena2E (Today we don’t have good weather).
  • pleme (tribe), breme (load), ramaž / rames (shoulder)
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 ime imeni imena
Sklon 2 imena imen imen
Sklon 3 imenu imenoma imenom
Sklon 4 ime imeni imena
Sklon 5 imenu imenih imenih
Sklon 6 imenom imenoma imeni

If compared with feminine and masculine exceptions, neuters are probably less complicated. Although, as a foreigner, learning “exceptions” can sometimes be difficult. From my point of view, the importance is not to always remember the exceptions, but to know that they exist. If you have any questions, let me know!

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Nouns – Masculine Exceptions

Masculine Slovene nouns generally have a consonant ending, which follows the six grammatical cases known as skloni. Although, in some cases, the nouns don’t end with a consonant, but they are also masculine.

International Words

Nouns that you might recognized without knowing Slovene, often “borrowed” from another language and don’t end with a consonant.

When declined, nothing “extra” is added. 

  • avto (car) → Grem z avtom6  (I go with car).
  • kino (movie theater) → Sem v kinu5 (I’m at the movie theater).
  • radio (radio) → Sem brez radia (I’m without radio).
  • finale (final), disko (disco)

When declined, “-j” is added.

  • taksi (taxi) → Sem v taksiju5 (I’m in the taxi).
  • hobi (hobby) → Nimam hobija2 (I don’t have hobby).
  • kanu (canoe) → Grem z kanujem6 (I go with canoe).
  • iglu (igloo), abonma (subscription), bife (bar), nivo (level), kuli (ballpoint pen)

Ending with -R

In general, masculine nouns end with a consonant. Many masculine nouns end with the consonant “-r” are considered as exceptions.

When declined, “-j” is added.

  • papir (paper) → Nimam papirja2 (I don’t have paper).
  • denar (money) → Imam težave z denarjem6 (I have problems with money).
  • some people: kuhar (cook), kolesar (biker), gozdar (forester)

When the ending is “-er“, the “e” disappears.

  • veter (wind) → Danes je brez vetra2 (Today is without wind).
  • meter (meter) → To je dva metra1 visoko (This is two meters tall).
  • Peter, Koper, Alexander

Ending with -E, -I or -O

Some masculine nouns, mostly names, can be confused with neutral gender as the ending is not a consonant but  “-e”, “-i” or “-o”.

Masculine nouns ending with “-e”, when declined “-t” is added.

  • e (father) → Grem z očetom6 v trgovino (I go with father to the store).
  • Tone, Jože, Anže, Ažbe, Jure, Bine

Masculine nouns ending with “-i”, when declined “-j” is added. 

  • i (father) → Grem z očijem6 v trgovino (I go with father to the store).
  • Franci, Timi, Edi
Oče and oči both can mean father or grandfather, depending on the region.

And oči can also mean oko (eye) in plural, which has a different ending.

Masculine names ending with “-o”, when declined nothing “extra” is added. 

  • Marko → Poročila sem se z Markom6 (I’m married with Marko).
  • Branko, Zlatko, Teo, Stanko, Miro

Ending with -A

As we know, endings in “-a” is often used with feminine nouns, but some masculine names also end with “-a”.

When declined, it has two possible endings : no change or as a feminine noun.

  • Miha → Šla sem brez Miha / Mihe2 (I went without Miha).
  • Luka, Jaka, Grega

Bonus Endings

For some short masculine nouns, when declined (all skloni), an “-ov” is added in dual and plural forms.

  • grad (castle) → V Evropi so veliko gradov2(m) (There are a lot of castles in Europe).
(E) ednina (D) dvojina (M) množina
Sklon 1 grad gradova gradovi
Sklon 2 gradu*
gradov gradov
Sklon 3 gradu gradovoma gradovom
Sklon 4 grad gradova gradove
Sklon 5 gradu gradovih gradovih
Sklon 6 gradom gradovoma gradovi
  • sok (juice) → Danes sem popila dva sokova4(d) (Today I drank two juices).
  • grob (grave), volk (wolf), most (bridge), glas (voice), gozd (forest)
*And if you want to be extra classy, some short words in Second Sklon, the singular form has two versions: one is as usual and the other, the ”-a” becomes ”-u”.

  • Some that adds ”-ov”: grad (castle), glas (voice), most (bridge).
  • Some that doesn’t add ”-ov”: led (ice), med (honey)

Some masculine nouns for ”people”, when declined in First Sklon, the plural form has two versions: one is as usual and the other, a ”-j” is added.

  • kmet (farmer) → Tam so trije kmeti / kmetje1(m) (There are three farmers).
  • študent (student), gost (guest), sosed (neighbor), gospod (mister).

Learning “exceptions” is never easy, but it’s like going the extra mile! Determination and practice! If you have any questions or other words that you would like to add-in, let me know!

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Phrases – To Know […]

Usually when you translate verbs from one language to another, you will end up with a direct translation. Although, an interesting verb in Slovene is the verb “to know” in English, because depending  on the context, it can be translated into three Slovene versions.

Vedeti – to know

The verb vedeti (to know) is used for common knowledge or things that can be learnt through information or observation.

  • Vem, da je Slovenija v Evropi5. (I know that Slovenia is in Europe).
  • A veste koliko je 5 krat 5 (Do you know how much is 5 times 5)?
  • Vem, katera kavarna ima najboljšo kavo4 (I know which coffee shop has the best coffee).
  • Veliko veste o politiki5(You know a lot about politics).

Znati – to know

The verb znati (to know) is used for knowledge, like a language or a skill.

  • Znam slovensko4angleško4, francosko4 in kitajsko4.
    (I know Slovene, English, French and Chinese).
  • Pika zna plavati, kuhati in voziti (Pika knows to swim, to cook and to drive).

Poznati – to know

The verb poznati (to know) is used when you know about someone or something.

  • Poznam to pesem4 (I know this song).
  • A poznate Martino4 ki živi v Kranju5 (Do you know Martina that lives in Kranj)?
  • Tina veliko potuje in pozna veliko držav (Tina travels a lot and knows many countries).

Bonus : Spoznati – to meet, to get to know, to realize

The verb spoznati (to meet, to get to know, to realize) can be confusing because it contains the verb znati and poznati, but has a different meaning.

  • Tilen in Maja sta spoznala na jezikovnem tečaju5 (Tilen and Maja met at the course).
  • Karl hoče spoznati Katjo4 (Karl wants to get to know Katja).
  • Jan je spoznal, da voziti med prometni konici5 ni dobra ideja. (Jan realized that driving during rush hour is not a good idea).

When you’re not sure which Slovene verbs to use, always remember the context!  If you have any questions, feel free to ask me!

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Slovene Irregular Participle for Past and Future Tense

As we know, participles are an essential part of Past Tense and Future Tense. If the participle, which is “root of verb + L_“,  is regular, then it is very simple, but if the participle falls into the irregular group, then you will have to remember. Also, keep in mind that irregular verbs in Present Tense don’t always equal irregular participle.

Past and Future Tense

A quick reminder of the Past Tense and Future Tense “formula”.

Past Tense = To Be (Present Tense) + Root of Verb + L_
Future Tense = To Be (Future Tense) + Root of Verb + L_

Regular participles of verbs ending with -ti, such as kuhati (to cook),
-ti becomes l_, sem / bom kuhal.

Verbs ending with -iti (to go)

  • itiel) – to go
  • priti (prišel) – to come
  • oditi (odšel) – to leave
  • preiti (prešel) – to go over
  • uiti (ušel) – to escape
  • zaiti (zašel) – to stray
  • raziti se (razšel se) – to break up

Verbs ending with -jesti (to eat)

  • jesti (jedel) – to eat
  • pojesti (pojedel) – to eat up
  • najesti (najedel) – to appease one’s hunger

Verbs ending with -pasti (to fall)

  • pasti (padel) – to fall
  • napasti (napadel) – to assault
  • odpasti (odpadel) – to be cancelled
  • propasti (propadel) – to collapse
  • razpasti (razpadel) – to disintegrate
  • zapasti (zapadel) – to lapse

Verbs ending with -nesti (to carry)

  • nesti (nešel) – to fall
  • obnesti se (odnešel) – to be effective
  • odnesti (odnešel) – to carry away
  • prinesti (prinešel) – to bring
  • vnesti (vnešel) – to insert
  • nanesti (nanešel) – to apply

Verbs ending with –reti (not a verb!)

  • odpreti (odprl) – to open
  • zapreti (zaprl) – to close
  • zavreti (zavrl) – to brake
  • scvreti (scvrl) – to fry
  • umreti (umrl) – to die
  • zadreti se (zadrl) – to yell

Verbs ending with –či

  • reči (rekel) – to say
  • peči (pekel) – to bake
  • teči (tekel) – to run
  • obleči se (oblekel) – to get dressed
  • odreči (odrekel) – to give up
  • vleči (vlekel) – to pull
  • vreči (vrgel) – to throw
  • streči (stregel) – to serve
  • doseči (dosegel) – to reach
  • leči (legel) – to lie down
  • moči (mogel) – to be able to
  • preseči (presegel) – to exceed

And others…

  • najti (našel) – to find
  • gristi (grizel) – to bite
  • krasti (kradel) – to steal
  • tepsti (tepel) – to fight
  • zmesti (zmedel) – to confuse
  • bosti (bodel) – to sting
  • splesti (spletel) – to knit
  • zebsti (zeblo) – to feel cold
  • vesti se (vedel se) – to behave
  • navesti (navedel) – to quote

I’m sure you are already familiar with some of the irregular participle. As you can see,  they follow a certain pattern, but not always. Most of them you will still need to memorize, but same as always, the more you will use them, the easier you will remember! 🙂 If you have any questions or any that you would like me to add, let me know!

Good thing to note is that the irregular verbs biti and imeti have regular participle; bil and imel.

And remember that biti in Past Tense is sem bil, but in Future Tense, it is just bom.

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Slovene Adverbs in General

Adverbs, known as prislov, are words that are used to modify an adjective, a verb and even another adverb. Those words are not declined like a noun would be, therefore they do no change form.

Although, in some cases, depending on the situation, different adverbs might be used. By asking some basic but specific questions, it can help identify which adverb to use.

Time (Cašovni Prislov)

For adverbs of time, the question word used is kdaj, which means “when”.

  • danes (today) / včeraj (yesterday) / jutri (tomorrow)
  • zjutraj (in the morning), (zvečer (in the evening) / ponoči (at night)
  • dopoldan (forenoon) / popoldan (afternoon)
  • zgodaj (early) / pozno (late)
  • takoj (immediately) / zdaj (now) / potem (later on)
  • vedno (always) / nikoli (never)
  • pozimi (Winter) / spomladi (Spring) / poleti (Summer) / jeseni (Autumn)

For example,

  1. Zgodaj ste. → You are early.
  2. Pridem takoj. →  I’m coming immediately.

Amount (Merni Prislov)

For adverbs for amount, the question word asked is koliko , which means “how much, how many”.

  • veliko (a lot) / malo (a little)
  • več (more) / manj (less)
  • preveč (too much) / premalo (too little, not enough)
  • dovolj (enough)
  • toliko (this much)
  • nekaj (some)
When using “quantify” a noun, the second sklon is being used.

Here’s how to express quantities in Slovene.

For example,

  1. Dovolj imam! → I have enough!
  2. Sem kupila veliko kruha2. → I bought a lot of bread.

Place (Krajevni Prislov)

For adverbs of place, two questions words can be used kam and kje, both means “where”.

Kam is used for a destination, like kam greste (where are you going). Kje is used for a location, like kje ste (where are you). Depending on which question is  adverb used might be different.

KAM? KJE? Translation
sem tukaj here
tja tam there
drugam drugje elsewhere
domov doma home
ven zunaj out, outside
noter notri inside
naprej spredaj ahead
nazaj zadaj back
gor zgoraj up
dol spodaj down

And some adverbs remains the same.

  • daleč (far) / blizu (close)
  • okoli (around)
  • vmes (in between)

For example,

  1. Grem ven. → I go out.
  2. Zunaj sem. → I am outside.
  3. Sem šla daleč. → I went far.

Manner (Načinovni Prislov)

For adverbs of manner, the question word used is kako, which means “how”and it is probably one of the most used adverb. . It is used to describe how an verb is done.

Do not confuse with adjective, which is used to describe how a noun is. Therefore, an adjective is declined, but an adverb is not.

Here’s about Slovene adjectives in general.
  • lepo (nicely) / grdo (uglily)
  • hitro (quickly) / počasno (slowly)
  • dobro (goodly) / slabo (badly)
  • zanimivo (interestingly) / dolgočasno (boringly)
  • močno (strongly) / šibko (weakly)
  • glasno (loudly) / tiho (quietly)

For example,

  1. Lepo govorite slovensko. → You speak Slovene nicely.
  2. Hitro je šel v službo → He went quickly to work.

Just as in English, the position of the adverb in a sentence is not fixed, it always depends on the context. If you have any questions or adverbs that you would like to add to the list, let me know!

Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

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Phrases – To Be […]

The verb “biti” (to be) is one of essential verb to know in practically every language. It can be used alone or paired with an adjective – the possibilities are  endless. Depending on the situation, most precisely skloni also apply.

Verb Biti – To Be

Here’s a quick review of the verb biti (to be) in Present Tense, Past Tense and Future Tense, as well as in its negation form.

BITI  Present Tense Past Tense Future Tense
Jaz sem / nisem sem / nisem bom / ne bom
Ti si / nisi si / nisi boš / ne boš
On, Ona, Ono je / ni se / ni bo / ne bo
Midva, Midve/Medve sva / nisva sva / nisva bova / ne bova
Vidva, Vidve, Vedve sta / nista sta / nista bosta / ne bosta
Onadva, Onidve sta / nista sta / nista bosta / ne bosta
Mi, Me smo / nismo smo / nismo bomo / ne bomo
Vi, Ve ste / niste ste / niste boste / ne boste
Oni, One so / niso so / niso bodo / ne bodo*
*Please note The verb biti for “oni” has two possible endings: bodo or bojo.

1. Biti + [Noun]1

When the verb biti is used alone with a noun,  the First Sklon applies.

For example,

  • Jaz sem [Anna]1  (I am Anna).
  • Matt, Lina in Jan niso [sodelavci]1 (Matt, Lina and Jan are not coworkers).

2. Biti + Adjective

The verb to be is also used with adjective to describe a state.

Such as,

  • Biti lačen / žejen (To be hungry / thirsty)
  • Biti pozen / točen (To be late / on time)
  • Biti prehlajen  (To have a cold)
  • Biti zadovoljen / razočaran (To be satisfied / disappointed)
  • Biti vesel / žalosten (To be happy)
  • Biti poročen / samski (To be married / single)
  • Biti utrujen (To be tired)
When the e is underlined, it means that when declined, the “e” is removed.

Remember that the following adjective has to correspond with the subject. i.e. Otroci so lačni  (The children are hungry).

3. Biti + Adjective + (Preposition) + [Noun]X

Then to make the phrase more completed, a noun can be added. Depending on the situation, there might be or not be a preposition, as some skloni aren’t used with preposition.

  • Biti nor na […]4 (To be crazy about chocolate)
    Sem nora na čokolado (I’m crazy about chocolate).
  • Biti znan po […]5 (To be well-known for)
    Bled je znan po kremšniti (Bled is well-known for cream cake).
  • Biti povezan z/s […]6 (To be linked with)
    Sladkor je povezan z debelostjo (Sugar is linked with obesity).
  • Biti zaljubljen v […]4  (To be in love with)
    Miranda je zaljubljena v sodelavca (Miranda is in love with her coworker).
  • Biti tesno soroden z/s  […]6  (To be closely related to)
    Nemšcina je tesno sorodna z Angleščino (German is closely related to English).
  • Biti prepričan o […]5 (To be convinced of)
    Miha je prepričan o svojem delu (Miha is convinced of his work).
  • Biti naklonjen  […]3 (To be in favor of)
    Milan je naklonjen elektronskim položnicam (Milan is in favor of electronic billings).
  • Biti izpostavljen […]3 (To be exposed to)
    Moderni otroci so izpostavljeni tehnologiji (Modern children are exposed to technologies).

What’s important to remember is the context, as well as preposition that would dictates which sklon to use. If there’s other examples that you would want to share, or have any questions, please let me know!

Discover more Slovene “lessons” that might interest you: Slovene Numbers & NumeralsSlovene Nouns & PronounsSlovene VerbsSlovene AdjectivesSlovene SyntaxSlovenian Idioms, Slovene Adverbs.

Let’s learn,